There is also a considerable and positive role for nutrients in terms of their chelation of iron. Indeed, polyphenolic compounds, many of which have known health benefits [1633-1642], are widely used as food antioxidants [1643; 1644]. There is of course considerable epidemiological evidence for the benefits of consuming fruit and vegetables that are likely to contain such antioxidants (e.g. [1645-1648]), and – although possibly a minimum – this has been popularised as the ‘five a day’ message (e.g. http://www.fruitsandveggiesmatter.gov/ and http://www.5aday.nhs.uk/). Even though elements of the ‘Mediterranean’ diet that are considered to be beneficial are usually assumed to be so on the basis of their antioxidant capabilities (but cf. ), many of the polyphenolic compounds (e.g. flavones, isoflavones, stilbenes, flavanones, catechins (flavan-3-ols), chalcones, tannins and anthocyanidins) [1650-1657] so implicated may also act to chelate iron as well [963; 1658-1672]. This is reasonable given that many of these polyphenols and flavonoid compounds [1650; 1673-1682] have groups such as the catechol moiety that are part of the known iron-binding elements of microbial siderophores. Examples include flavones such as quercetin [807; 1642; 1658; 1683-1693], rutin [1658; 1686; 1687; 1694; 1695], baicalin [1689; 1696], curcumin [1642; 1697-1701], kolaviron , flavonol , floranol , xanthones such as mangiferin [1705-1708], morin , catechins [963; 1636; 1667; 1683; 1709; 1710] and theaflavins , as well as procyanidins [1664; 1712] and melatonin [1464; 1713-1716].
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