Dr S, the following pictures are from No Evidence of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency at Multiple Sclerosis Onset
Claudio Baracchini, Paola Perini, Massimiliano Calabrese, Francesco Causin, Francesca Rinaldi, Paolo Gallo
[A] This is Figure 3 shows, verbatim, "a representative case of pMS having a CCSVI pattern but normal VGF.". The full caption is:
"FIGURE 3: (A) ECDS in pMS patient in the supine position: IJV stenosis with septum. (B) Venography in the same patient,
supine position: no lumen irregularities. (C) Venography, 45-degree tilt: normal drainage. ECDS 5 extracranial echo-color
Doppler sonography; IJV 5 internal jugular vein; pMS 5 possible MS."
It seems obvious, but i would like to hear your opinion on the RIJV venography images.
[B] This is Figure 1. The caption beneath says:
"FIGURE 1: ECDS in a ‘‘jugular drainer.’’ (A) IJV (in blue) and CCA (in red). (B) VV (in blue) and VA (in red). (C, D) CSA of IJV in
supine and in sitting position, respectively. (a–c) Serial B-mode image of a jugular valve: a, open valve; b,c, closing valve. CCA
5 common carotid artery; ECDS 5 extracranial echo-color Doppler sonography; IJV 5 internal jugular vein; VA 5 vertebral
artery; VV 5 vertebral vein."
Would you say that pictures a,b and c are sonographic evidence of an immobile upper valve leaflet? It hardly changes position in relation to the vein wall.