Smoking reduces nitric oxide in the blood vessels and causes an increase in ADMA, the modified amino acid which puts strain on the heart. Nicotine also causes vessels to narrow, so that less oxygen is delivered to the heart. Platelets become stickier, and therefore clot formation is increased. Additionally, smoking raises the level of carbon monoxide in the blood, which increases the risk of injury to endothelial cells 11
11-Kalliopi Karatzi, MSc, Christos Papamichael, MD, Emmanouil Karatzis, MD, Theodore G. Papaioannou, PhD, Paraskevi Th. Voidonikola, MD, John Lekakis, MD and Antonis Zampelas, PhD. Acute smoking induces endothelium dysfunction (2007). Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 1, 10–15
HFogerty wrote:BTW, do not know if it is true or not but I was told that Marlboro cigs contain a chocolate additive -sad, huh?
Tobacco smoking, but not Swedish snuff use, increases the risk of multiple sclerosis
Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of tobacco smoking and Swedish snuff use on the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS).
Methods: A population-based case-control study was performed in Sweden, using incident cases of MS (902 cases and 1,855 controls). A case was defined as a subject from the study base who had received a diagnosis of MS, and controls were randomly selected from the study base. The incidence of MS among smokers was compared with that of never-smokers. We also investigated whether the use of Swedish snuff had an impact on the risk of developing MS.
Results: Smokers of both sexes had an increased risk of developing MS (odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–1.7 for women, and OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5 for men). The increased risk was apparent even among subjects who had previously smoked moderately (≤5 pack-years) prior to index, and the risk increased with increasing cumulative dose (p < 0.0001). The increased risk for MS associated with smoking remained up to 5 years after stopping smoking. In contrast, taking Swedish snuff for more than 15 years decreased the risk of developing MS (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.8 ).
Conclusions: Smokers of both sexes run an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), and the risk increases with cumulative dose of smoking. However, the use of Swedish snuff is not associated with elevated risk for MS, which may indicate that nicotine is not the substance responsible for the increased risk of developing MS among smokers.
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