My other Bloods results came back with Vit B1 still to come;
Vit E 33umol/L (23-70 umol/L)
Fatty Acids (Free) 0.1mEq/L (0.0-0.6)
I had a low folate a while back don't know what it is now though
Folate 16.5nmol?L (9.0-45.0)
A recent article about Vit B and Immune system made the whole picture even more complex because Vit B12 deficiency is one of the co-incidences in MS;
HOW THE BODY USES VITAMIN B TO RECOGNISE BACTERIAL INFECTION.
Professor Jamie Rossjohn
11 October 2012
Professor Jamie Rossjohn
An Australian research team has discovered how specialised immune cells
recognise products of vitamin B synthesis that are unique to bacteria and
yeast, triggering the body to fight infection.
The finding opens up potential targets to improve treatments or to develop a
vaccine for tuberculosis.
The study, jointly led by the University of Melbourne and Monash University
and published today in the journal Nature, has revealed for the first time
that the highly abundant mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells),
recognise products of vitamin B synthesis from bacteria and yeast in an
early step to activating the immune system.
The research revealed how by-products of bacterial vitamin synthesis,
including some derived from Folic acid or vitamin B9 and Riboflavin or
vitamin B2, could be captured by the immune receptor MR1 thus fine-tuning
the activity of MAIT cells.
Dr Lars Kjer-Nielsen from the University of Melbourne led the five year
"Humans are unable to make vitamin B and obtain it mostly from diet. Because
bacteria can synthesise vitamin B, our immune system uses this as a point of
difference to recognise infection," he said.
"Given the relative abundance of the MAIT cells lining mucosal and other
surfaces, such as the intestine, the mouth, lungs, it is quite probable that
they play a protective role in many infections from thrush to tuberculosis.
"This is a significant discovery that unravels the long sought target of
MAIT cells and their role in immunity to infection."
Professor James McCluskey of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology
at the University of Melbourne said the discovery opened up opportunities
for vaccine development and other potential therapeutics.
"This is a major breakthrough in which Australian researchers have beaten
many strong research teams around the world, becoming the first to unlock
the mystery of what drives a key component of our immune system," he said.
Monash University's Professor Jamie Rossjohn said the findings had major
implications for understanding the interplay between gut bacteria and the
"Some vitamin by-products appear to drive immunity while others dampen it,"
Professor Rossjohn said.
The next step is to explore whether MAIT cells might also be involved in
intestinal or mucosal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and
irritable bowel syndrome.
"This discovery now cracks open a new field in immunology and we can expect
many research groups to focus their attention on this system," Professor
"The discovery also involved collaborators at Melbourne's Bio21 Molecular
Science and Biotechnology Institute, Metabolomics Australia and the
University of Queensland, reflecting the importance of collaboration between
researchers to be globally competitive," Professor McCluskey said.
The research was supported by the Australian Research Council and the
National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.http://myscienceacademy.org/2012/10/12/ ... infection/