Is CCSVI thickening the IJV veins & valves due to shear stress & hypoxia (stimulating the release of "endothelin 1" factors)? What part do androgens play...how are they related?
MegansMom wrote:These veins are made of mesenchymal tissue, mesenchymal tissue responds to hormones, especially female hormones, the tissue is much more " stretchy" during pregnancy/ lactation. This may explain why there are less MS events during these times
2. Sheer stress and hypoxia both make the endothelium produce "endothelin 1" this "endothelin1" can cause fibrosis ( stiffness) and hypertrophy (thickening) of vessels (arteries and veins) especially valves. So from birth this may cause the veins/ valves to get worse CCSVI over time.
3. Endothelin1 is found in much higher levels in people with MS. It would be interesting to see if they could test if the level goes down after CCSVI angioplasty and normal cerebral venous outflow?
4.could a high level of Endothelin1 influence restenosis/ resumption of reflux after angioplasty?
Cell Cycle. 2009 Dec 15;8(24):4079-84. Epub 2009 Dec 21.
Sex steroid-mediated reprogramming of vascular smooth muscle cells to stem cells and neurons: possible utilization of sex steroid combinations for regenerative treatment without utilization of in vitro developed stem cells.
Unlike OSE cells, the vascular SMC accompany as pericytes all vessels, including CNS microvasculature. We also observed that sex steroid combinations could produce SMC stem type cells which differentiated within a few days back to mature vascular SMC. This is of potential interest for the vascular regenerative medicine. Altogether, our observations suggest that sex steroid combinations could induce in vivo improvement of neurodegenerative, traumatic and ischemic neurological disorders and vascular diseases via their effect on resident pluripotent vascular SMC, i.e., without a need of in vitro developed stem cells.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2010 Apr;3(2):103-13.
Gender dimorphisms in progenitor and stem cell function in cardiovascular disease.
Herrmann JL, Abarbanell AM, Weil BR, Manukyan MC, Poynter JA, Wang Y, Coffey AC, Meldrum DR.
Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
This review discusses (1) the cardiovascular effects of sex steroids (specifically estradiol and testosterone); (2) the therapeutic potentials of endothelial progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and embryonic stem cells; and (3) the direct effect of sex steroids on these cell types.
PMID: 20376198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC2850109 [Available on 2011/4/1]