Great find on the research of serum ET-1 levels in pwMS, Cat. It is the research of real pwMS, in vivo, not mice with EAE, that we should be focusing time and money on.
There is an ELISA blood test for ET-1
I'm pretty sure it's not standard.
Thought it might be good to give some background and explanations of endothelins, and what they do.
There are 3 members in the endothelin family. Not inherently good or bad, they all affect the endothlium, the lining of 60,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body. They are produced by endothelial cells.
Endothelins are proteins that constrict blood vessels (vasoconstrictors) and raise blood pressure. They are normally kept in balance by other mechanisms, but when they are over-expressed, they contribute to high blood pressure and heart disease. It is the over-expression of these proteins we want to avoid.
Endothelin 1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
An over-expression of endothelin-1 can be linked to genetics, it can be caused by diabetes, or induced by hypoxic injury. It is linked to obesity, high fat diets, inflammation and modern life. When I started looking at Jeff's serum numbers at diagnosis (high coagulation, high liver enzymes) and his physical issues (jaundice, petechiae) I kept coming back to endothelial dysfunction. That's when I started trying to find out how to balance nitric oxide and calm down this response of hypercoagulation and vasoconstriction.
Weight loss reduces endothelin 1
and I wrote up the program for Jeff:
http://www.ccsvi.org/index.php/helping- ... ial-health
Zinc is in the program, so are antioxidants, sunshine, laughter, exercise, low fats, proteolytic enzymes, EGCG, quercetin, bromelain, and lots of other stuff. It's all in the program.
The good news is that even if you are predisposed to high endothelin 1 overexpression, there is much you can do with diet and lifestyle and supplements to counteract this. It can be reversed. Of course, I believe good flow and a reversal of disturbance and turbulant blood flow will help, which is why angioplasty for venous malformations is important. But much can be done with diet and lifestyle.
It baffles the mind how ET-1 levels could be 224% higher in pwMS, yet the connection to the vascular system is overlooked.