According to Zivadinov, high prevalence of CCSVI in NMO.
MS patients also were defined by disease type: relapsing-remitting (RR), secondary progressive (SP), primary-progressive (PP), progressive-relapsing (PR) and MS with neuromyelitis optical (NMO) -- a type of MS that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord exclusively.
The highest prevalence was seen in relapsing primary-progressive MS (89.4 percent), followed by non-relapsing secondary-progressive MS (67.2 percent), NMO (66.6 percent), primary-progressive MS (54.5 percent) and relapsing-remitting MS (49.2 percent). CCSVI prevalence was substantially higher in progressive MS than in non-progressive MS patients. In addition, patients with a progressive MS disease subtype had higher CCSVI prevalence than those with non-progressive MS.