Primary Outcome Measures:
•Fundus: venous engorgement/beading
Abnormal vessel appearance in fundi may include venous engorgement and beading, abnormal A/V ratio, blurred disc margins, papilledema, dot hemorrhages or exudates.
Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) has been proposed as the cause of numerous neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. CCSVI is the result of poor drainage of blood (and cerebral spinal fluid to some degree) from weakened or stenosed veins usually located in the cervical area (most notably the internal jugular veins). Although current focus and treatment of CCSVI is on multiple sclerosis, CCSVI has also been implicated as a potential cause of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's Disease. Additionally, patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) -- a disorder of connective tissue -- are more prone to developing multiple sclerosis than the general population. Many EDS patients are known to have weakened and abnormal blood vessels and 40 - 70% of EDS patients develop autonomic dysfunction in addition to numerous other symptoms found in patients with CCSVI. In the small subset of EDS and multiple sclerosis patients seen at Total Eye Care, the investigators have noticed a vascular irregularity (using the optomap® and examining the results under high magnification) which offers credence to the theory of CCSVI. Such objective data has been elusive, excepting for fMRI, ultrasound (to a limited degree) and venous angioplasty results. Current treatment of CCSVI involves the ballooning and sometimes stenting, of abnormally stenosed veins. The treatment of CCSVI offers hope to many patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. Although CCSVI research is in its infancy, many doctors believe that CCSVI is a significant portion of the solution to patients with neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. Because CCSVI is a vascular disorder, the investigators hypothesize that the investigators are able to screen candidates for CCSVI via the optomap®.
Are the answers in our eyes?
This may be quantifiable evidence of vascular abnormality in CCSVI in MS. Very happy if it is so.