Rebif and Avonex use mannitol as a stabilizer, too.
Mannitol is a diurectic, used in head injury and stroke to reduce edema and improve cerebral blood flow (CBF)`
Mannitol, a 6-carbon sugar, is widely used in head injury management, though it has never been subjected to a randomised control trial against placebo and the methods and timing of administration vary widely. It is an osmotic diuretic and can have significant beneficial effects on Intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow and brain metabolism. Mannitol has two main mechanisms of action. Immediately after bolus administration it expands circulating volume, decreases blood viscosity and therefore increases cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen delivery.
Acute improvement in exacerbating multiple sclerosis produced by intravenous administration of mannitol.
Seven of 8 patients receiving placebo infusions (2.5% glucose) showed no significant clinical change and 1 exhibited an equivocal improvement. Five of 9 patients receiving mannitol showed definite signs of clinical improvement phase-locked to drug administration, with subsequent gradual reversal to baseline
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Stefoski et al. (47) demonstrated that a mannitol-induced osmotic diuresis clinically improved critical flicker fusion frequency and visual acuity in patients with exacerbating MS, thereby suggesting that steroids function by reducing edema in acute lesions.
http://www.slideshare.net/many87/multip ... is-5486552
Indications and Usage for Mannitol Injection
Mannitol I.V. (Mannitol Injection, USP) is indicated for the following purposes in adults and pediatric patients.
Promotion of diuresis in the prevention or treatment of the oliguric phase of acute renal failure before irreversible renal failure becomes established.
Reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass.
Reduction of high intraocular pressure when the pressure cannot be lowered by other means.
Promotion of urinary excretion of toxic materials.
I don't know....maybe it's the mannitol injection, not the glatiramer acetate, which has benefitted Jeff. Sure would be a lot less expensive just to inject mannitol....