yeadonscience wrote:There is currently much debate about the requirement for the liberation of veins other than the jugulars and azygous. How often is liberation required other than the big two. Is CCSVI a condition of only these two veins.
At the craniocervical level, anterior sources of intraspinal system arise from basal plexus and IPS (Schaller, 2004; Chaynes, 2003). A posterior communicating venous drainage exists with occipital sinus, which may be relevant in cases of lateral sinus hypoplasia (Schaller 2004). The system communicates with deep thoracic and lumbar veins, intercostal veins, AZY, and hemiazygous veins, as well as with the inferior vena cava. Particularly, the collateral circle between the AZY and the inferior vena cava, via the left renal vein is particularly relevant in course of CCSVI. The AZY in the MS group was obstructed in 86% of cases. Most cases involved membranous obstruction of the junction with the superior vena cava, twisting, or, less frequently, septum and atresia (Zamboni et al., 2009a). In such cases, descending venography documented a reflux flow along the AZY system, which re-enters into the caval system through the hemiazygous-lumbar anastomosis with the left renal vein (Fig. 2)
Cece wrote:I do not think Dr. Zamboni has offered a public opinion on the renal vein however he was the one who initiated the "go in on the left" so as to check the left iliac vein for May Thurner. Dr. Sclafani observed this when he visited Italy in June of 2010 and, upon asking, found out that Dr. Zamboni/Dr. Galleoti had always gone in on the left to check the iliac vein but it had been cut from the paper by the editor for space reasons! .
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