J Laryngol Otol. 1994 May;108(5):423-5.
Internal jugular vein blowout complicating head and neck surgery.
Timon CV, Brown D, Gullane P.
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Toronto Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
Internal jugular venous rupture after head and neck surgery is a rare but important condition to recognize. The Toronto General Hospital experience of this condition, together with its identification and management is reported. Jugular vein rupture should be considered in patients undergoing primary tumour excision with modified or functional neck dissection complicated by a pharyngo-cutaneous fistula. Typically, bleeding is venous and occurs repeatedly. However, haemorrhage may be substantial and life-threatening. Treatment requires exploration and ligation of the venous system. The carotid artery should be assessed and protected at surgery, since there is a likelihood of a carotid blowout as the conditions have a common aetiology. It is important to distinguish jugular vein haemorrhage from carotid arterial rupture, since the former has a far better outcome if treated properly.
This is a discussion of rupture of the IJV after head and neck surgery. I don't know if as serious a rupture could result form angioplasty or from a surgical grafting procedure. The part I don't like reading is that hemorrhage can be substantial and life-threatening, and then that treatment is ligation. It does say that a jugular vein hemorrhage has a far better outcome than a carotid hemorrhage.
Jugular vein hemorrhage has not been reported by any of the patients or doctors as a result of CCSVI angioplasty. Dissection or small tears have been treated by stenting or by suctioning out any small clot that is already forming and then following-up with a day-after ultrasound with the possibility of a second procedure if needed.