Endothelial Cells Stimulate Self-Renewal and Expand Neurogenesis of Neural Stem Cells
Qin Shen1, Susan K. Goderie1, Li Jin1, Nithin Karanth1, Yu Sun1, Natalia Abramova1, Peter Vincent2, Kevin Pumiglia3 and Sally Temple1,*
Neural stem cells are reported to lie in a vascular niche, but there is no direct evidence for a functional relationship between the stem cells and blood vessel component cells. We show that endothelial cells but not vascular smooth muscle cells release soluble factors that stimulate the self-renewal of neural stem cells, inhibit their differentiation, and enhance their neuron production. Both embryonic and adult neural stem cells respond, allowing extensive production of both projection neuron and interneuron types in vitro. Endothelial coculture stimulates neuroepithelial cell contact, activating Notch and Hes 1 to promote self-renewal. These findings identify endothelial cells as a critical component of the neural stem cell niche.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neural_stem_cellNeural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system. Stem cells are characterized by their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types via exogenous stimuli from their environment. They undergo symmetric cell division into two daughter cells, one non-specialized and one specialized. NSCs primarily differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
If CCSVI affects the endothelium of the capillaries of the brain, then it affects the neural stem cells and their ability to repair or replace damaged brain cells.
As much as we can, we need to do the things that benefit the endothelium: nutrition, exercise, laughter, supplements, improved blood flow.