Cece wrote:It's great that they're looking at the arterial flow as well. The hypothesis at the end (that the reduced arterial flow is due to inflammation) should be readily testable by seeing if it is more reduced in patients with active inflammation and less reduced in patients without active inflammation. A counter-hypothesis would be that the arterial inflow is reduced because outflow is reduced due to venous obstructions and inflow and outflow are linked in a closed system.
Atherosclerosis and Plaque Attacks
Plaques from atherosclerosis can behave in different ways.
They can stay within the artery wall. There, the plaque grows to a certain size and stops. "Because they don't block blood flow, these plaques may never cause any symptoms," says Stein.
They can grow in a slow, controlled way into the path of blood flow. Eventually, they cause significant blockages. Pain on exertion (in the chest or legs) is the usual symptom.
The worst-case scenario: plaques can suddenly rupture, allowing blood to clot inside an artery. In the brain, this causes a stroke; in the heart, a heart attack.
The plaques of atherosclerosis cause the three main kinds of cardiovascular disease:
Coronary artery disease: Stable plaques in the heart's arteries cause angina (chest pain on exertion). Sudden plaque rupture and clotting causes heart muscle to die. This is a heart attack, or myocardial infarction.
Cerebrovascular disease: Ruptured plaques in the brain's arteries causes strokes, with the potential for permanent brain damage. Temporary blockages in an artery can also cause transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), which are warning signs of stroke; however, there is no brain injury.
Peripheral artery disease: Narrowing in the arteries of the legs caused by plaque. Peripheral artery disease causes poor circulation. This causes pain on walking and poor wound healing. Severe disease may lead to amputations.
LR1234 wrote:Where was study done and by whom? If it's on your post apologies for me not seeing it!!
ttucker3 wrote:The viscosity of blood would play into this sequence. Hence, is there any correlation between blood viscosity and risk of MS?
Red Cell and Hemorheological Changes in Multiple Sclerosis
1987, Vol. 19, No. 1 , Pages 51-55
Leslie O. Simpson1†, Brett I. Shand1, Robin J. Olds1, Peter W. Larking2 and Michael J. Arnott2
1Pathology Department, University of Otago Medical School, Dunedin, New Zealand
Blood rheology in multiple sclerosis (MS) was investigated in 15 subjects with varying degrees of locomotor difficulties who were members of the local MS Society. Control data were obtained from blood samples from 25 male and 25 female normal blood donors. Whole blood viscosity was measured and blood filterability was assessed. Six MS females provided blood samples for scanning electron microscopy. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and phospholipids were assayed.
Whole blood viscosity in MS females was higher than controls at 3 of 4 shear rates (p < 0.001) but in MS males blood viscosity was higher only at shear rate of 1.0 s−1 (p<0.05). MS erythrocyte filtration rates were significantly lower than controls (p<0.001). Leucocyte counts in MS were greater than controls both in males (p <0.01) and females (p < 0.001). MS erythrocyte morphology was greatly different from controls (p<0.0001) and erythrocyte membranes contained less sphingomyelin than controls (p<0.01) but more phosphatidylinositol plus phosphatidylserine (p<0.02).
We conclude that, because our findings indicate an identifiable and potentially correctable abnormality, it is possible to envisage an inhibition of the progressive nature of MS, with the hope of a better prognosis for patients.
Full article is available. Platelets are increased and hemoglobin decreased in the MS group.The Haematological Profile of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
ttucker3 wrote:The very localized regions of hypertension and slow blood flow predicted by standing pressure waves would occur only if the venous obstruction were abrupt, not gradual, since a gradual narrowing (perhaps over several cm) would not give rise to the reflux phenomena - like a sea wave being absorbed on a sandy beach vs a sea wave being reflected from a hard, vertical sea wall.
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