Alzheimer's disease and vascular deficiency: lessons from imaging studies and down syndrome.
Reed-Cossairt A, Zhu X, Lee HG, Reed C, Perry G, Petersen RB
Zhu/Lee Lab (Case Western Reserve University)
Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2012 . 2012():929734.
Down syndrome (DS) individuals are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and consequently provide a unique opportunity to examine the factors leading to the onset of AD. This paper focuses on the neglected vascular parallels between AD and DS that can readily be examined in DS. Several recent AD studies provide evidence that internal jugular vein (IJV) reflux may result in white matter lesions and a 30% decrease in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance of amyloid-β. At the same time, studies analyzing the synthesis of amyloid-β in DS showed greater than expected amounts of Aβ than would be predicted by the increase in gene dosage, perhaps due to slower clearance. These studies are discussed along with the possibility that the venous and CSF dysfunction found in AD patients may be present early in life in persons with DS, leaving them particularly vulnerable to early onset AD. Studying IJV function in DS provides an opportunity to understand the role of vascular function in the initiation of AD.
The research hasn't been done yet. This article is making the case for research on the IJV to be done in people with Down Syndrome.