1. In healthy subjects, the IJV valve leaflets are ALWAYS mobile and open in up-right.
2. 62% of healthy controls with valve absence at least of one side suggests a progressive LOSS OF PHYLOGENETIC IMPORTANCE of such apparatus
3. BICUSPID is PREVALENT, MONOCUSPID is COMMON, TRICUSPID WAS NEVER FOUND
4. The ATRIAL CONTRACTION induces an aspirating effect which is the main mechanism of the BRIEF rhythmic leaflets closure. Respiration induces increased flow and the cusps are more saddled to the vein wall
I have to look up phylogenetic to make sure it means what I think it means.
Bicuspid is a valve with two leaflets; monocuspid is a valve with one leaflet; tricuspid would be a valve with three leaflets but this was not seen in the healthy controls they were looking at.