I've been wondering about what the possibilities are for interventions if the MRV does show problems..... There's the host of suggestions from Cheerleader's endothelial paper, and there is the surgery and stents like Marie and Jeff, but what lies in between? Non-stent interventions?
My understanding is that there are two types of possible invasive interventions: venous angioplasty with stents, and venous angioplasty without stents.
Here's the first result on Google if you search for venous angioplasty:
A Venous Angioplasty is a non-surgical procedure, which can be performed during a venogram to open or bypass narrowed veins to prevent clotting. Venous angioplasty can also be used for placement of a stent, which keep a vessel or tissue in an open position to allow bypass of scarred tissue and improve blood flow.
For a venous angioplasty procedure, a venogram (procedural x-ray of veins) is performed. Once blocked or narrowed vessel(s) are visualized on the venogram, a balloon tipped catheter is inserted into the blocked vein and guided under fluoroscopic x-ray to the area of interest. The balloon inflates to correct the blockage and enable blood flow. In some circumstances, a stent is put on the balloon tipped catheter. When the balloon is inflated, the stent is expanded and sticks to the walls of the blood vessel to keep it open.
You asked in another thread about published results using these interventions. Unfortunately, the only published results I'm aware of, in the context of MS, are the TIMS users who have posted their experiences. Both Jeff and Marie had venous angioplasty with stents, while Wobbly had venous angioplasty without the use of stents. Cheerleader suggested that Dr. Zamboni might not have been able to use stents with Wobbly because of legal issues, but it seems possible that not all PwMS will need stents.
Outside the context of MS, I'm not sure how often doctors have performed angioplasty (w/ or w/o stenting) on the internal jugular veins and azygous vein (or what the results have been). As far as I'm aware, no one has posted any such information on TIMS, and quick Googling hasn't proved too successful for me.