If you read the research thread and the Zamboni papers, they all discuss having 100% of MSers having an abnormality, in the '07 paper and the Jan '09 paper they were only having permission to do dopplers, so in those papers ALL of the MS patients showed at least 2 abnormlities in doppler readings suggesting a problem with circulation. These "two" abnormals might be a combination of several types of abnormalities, for example someone might have reflux in the DCV's and also b-mode abnormality.....another person might have a jugular CSA issue and b mode . Therefore as you look at the chart that shows the percentage of people who had each abnormality none of them are 100%. As you read the discussion there is where the fact that by looking for 2 or more abnormalities you discover 100% MSers had at least 2 abnormal readings and no controls did.
The really interesting paper is the Dec '08 one, on that paper they did all the dopplers blinded and controlled, and when they unblinded the patient diagnosis, again all of the MSers were the ones with the 2 abnormals.
What made that study robust is that they THEN did venograms and looked directly at the veins to see if there actually were any stenoses causing these refuces or if they were some kind of MS anomaly--ALL the MS patients had an actual bona fide stenosis verified on venogram.
The patients undergoing venogram for heart disease or vascular diseases had NO stenosis in the cerebrospinal venous system.
Since this study was blinded and the 100% was again confirmed, it is a very good study for validating the earlier work where reflux was seen in all MSers, although sceintific proof will not be secure until there is rigorous replication.
The first installment of the Jacobs study will come out soon and my GUESS is that almost all MS diagnosed people will have this but that there will be some people who do not because the people who are permitted are not aggressively screened for CDMS. In other words, possibly not 100% because of misdiagnosed persons in a general pool of people carrying the MS diagnosis, whereas the Zamboni groups were carefully screened for typical classic MS.
But the model is that this stenosis is the cause of MS lesions the same way such stenosis causes lesions of the lower leg. If this is accurate then it is pathognomic, meaning if you have MS you will have stenosis, so all people with real true MS will have it if that really is pathognomic.
THis is still early work, still not proven because other places need to agree this is what is going on in MS.
I'm not offering medical advice, I am just a patient too! Talk to your doctor about what is best for you...
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