Effects of 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the expression of HO-1 and GFAP in glial cells of the photothrombotically lesioned cerebral cortex.
Abstract In ischemic cerebral injuries a cascade of degenerative mechanisms, all participating in the development of oxidative stress, influence the condition of the tissue. The survival of viable tissue affected by secondary injury largely depends on the balance between endogenous protective mechanisms and the ongoing degenerative processes. The inducible enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 metabolizes and thus detoxifies free heme to the powerful endogenous antioxidants biliverdin and bilirubin therefore enhancing neuroprotection. The secosteroid 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) is a modulator of the immune system and also exhibits a strong potential for neuroprotection as recently shown in the MCAO model of cerebral ischemia. We studied the effects of 1,25-D3 treatment on heme oxygenase-1 expression following focal cortical ischemia elicited by photothrombosis. Postlesional treatment with 1,25-D3 (4 microg/kg body weight) resulted in a transient, but significant upregulation of glial heme oxygenase-1 immunoreactivity concomitant with a reduction in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in remote cortical regions affected by a secondary spread of injury, whereas the size of the lesion's core remained unaffected. 1,25-D3 did not produce a temporal shift or extension of injury-related heme oxygenase-1 responses, indicating that 1,25-D3 did not prolong ischemia-related heme oxygenase-1 expression. In contrast to glial heme oxygenase-1 upregulation, glial fibrillary acidic protein, a sensitive marker for reactive gliosis, was significantly reduced. These findings support an additional protective action of 1,25-D3 at the cellular level in regions affected by secondary injury-related responses.
Authors Karl Zilles , Otto-W Witte , Hans-J Bidmon , Evelyn Oermann
Journal Title Journal of chemical neuroanatomy
This one says that the resulting damage is the sum of the inside the body (endogenous) protective mechanisms and the amount of degeneration caused by the damage...
They caused a type of blood clot to occur then watched the lesion that developed from it.
If they gave active vitamin d after the lesion was present the core of the lesion did not change but the secondary expansion of the lesion was reduced by reducing the gliosis which scarring to the nerve. In other words it didn't heal the initial brain lesion injury but it reduced the secondary injury.