. A jugular stenosis (rare in the population) reaches critical mass causing CCSVI and enough reflux that the immune system is unable to continue controlling the EBV, and voila: Mono.
The location of the nodes makes me think jugular vein, somehow connected to CCSVI
I don't understand how stenosis would harm the immune system and cause EBV to go out of control?
Did your MS start right after that ?
Epstein-Barr virus may cause Multiple Sclerosis through involvement of the venous system.
* Steven R Brenner, Neurologist
St. Louis VA Medical Center and Dept Neurology and Psychiatry at St. Louis University
I read the article by Zivadinov (1) with reference to the association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
Accumulation of EBV infected B cells in meninges and perivascular regions of MS lesions in 21 or 22 patients with MS (2) was noted as well, indicating direct involvement of the brain and perivascular spaces by EBV in MS patients..
A recent study has indicated chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency with multiple extracranial venous strictures in MS patients (3).
EBV appears to infect endothelial cells (4), and may be important in the pathology of EBV virus.
EBV virus has been found to cause deep venous thrombosis in a patient with hereditary thrombophilia (5).
EBV may infect the venous endothelium causing venous thromboses and strictures in the cranial and spinal venous drainage system and perivascular regions of MS lesions in patients with MS.
Such venous involvement may be implicated in MS disease involvement.
Chronic EBV infection may involve the venous system with secondary effects on the brain and spinal cord in MS.
1.Zivadinov R, Zorzon M, Weinstock-Guttman B, Serafin M, Bosco A, Bratina A, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus is associated with grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009; 80: 620 -625.
2.Serafani B, Rosicarelli B, Franciotta D, et al.
Dysregulated Epstein-Barr virus infection in the multiple sclerosis brain.
J Exp Med 2007; 204:2899-2912.
3. Zamboni P, Galeotti P, Menegatti E, Malagoni AM, Tacconi G, et al.
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009: 80: 392-398.
4. Jones K, Rivera C, Sgadari C, Franklin J, Max EE, et al.
Infection of human endothelial cells with Epstein-Barr virus.
J Exp Med. 1995; 182: 1213-1221.
5. Mashav N, Saar N, Chundadze T, Steinvil.
Epstein-Barr virus associated thromboembolism: A case report and review of the literature.
Thromb Res. 2008; 122: 570-571.
No conflict of interest.
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