42% had exacerbations starting in the premenstrual phase.
Within this group the proportion of premenstrual exacerbations was significantly higher than in the remaining period of the menstrual cycle, and in 45% all exacerbations had started during the premenstrual phase.
The ratio of progesterone/17-beta-estradiol during the luteal phase was significantly associated with both number (r = 0.6, p = 0.03) and volume (r = 0.7, p = 0.009) of enhancing lesions, providing support for a role of these hormones as immunomodulatory factors in MS.
26 (43%) regularly experienced worsening of their MS symptoms in the period just before, or at the beginning of, the menstruation.
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