squiffy2 wrote:Multiple sclerosis is a challenging disease on many fronts, including the search for effective ways to treat and manage symptoms and relapse. Results of a novel trial using omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, as well as vitamins, have shown some promise for people with multiple sclerosis...... Read More - http://www.ms-uk.org/index.cfm/dietresearch
chico wrote:The omega3, omega6, vit-a, alpha-tocopherol group without gamma-tocopherol did not achieve significant results.
Only the group with added gamma-tocopherol (but not gamma-tocopherol alone) had any benefits from the study.
I don think its related to the polyunsaturated fats but rather the interaction between gamma/alpha tocopherol.
There has allready - and just recently - been a fairly large controlled and blilnded study showing no benefits of similar omega3 dose.
Conclusions Advice to substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats is a key component of worldwide dietary guidelines for coronary heart disease risk reduction. However, clinical benefits of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega 6 linoleic acid, have not been established. In this cohort, substituting dietary linoleic acid in place of saturated fats increased the rates of death from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. An updated meta-analysis of linoleic acid intervention trials showed no evidence of cardiovascular benefit. These findings could have important implications for worldwide dietary advice to substitute omega 6 linoleic acid, or polyunsaturated fats in general, for saturated fats.
It all depends on which studies you chose to read, and "how" you chose to read them.chico wrote:In reality only omega-6 has shown some promise in the treatment of MS.
Many of the placebo-controlled trials of fish oil in chronic inflammatory diseases reveal significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Results: 31 RRMS patients were enrolled, with mean follow up over 11±SD 2.9 months. Clinical benefits favoring the FO group were observed on PCS/SF-36 (P=0.050) and MHI (P=0.050) at 6 months. Reduced fatigue was seen on the OO diet at 6 months (P=0.035). The relapse rate decreased in both groups relative to the rates during the 1 year preceding the study: mean change in relapse rate in the FO group: −0.79±SD 1.12 relapses/year (P=0.021) vs. −0.69±SD 1.11 (P=0.044) in the OO group. This study suggests that a low fat diet supplemented with ω-3 PUFA can have moderate benefits in RRMS patients on concurrent disease modifying therapies.
. It appears that there is a trend suggesting that the addition of omega six and omega three Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids to the diet of patients with Multiple Sclerosis results in a reduction of the severity and frequency of relapses and in a mild overall benefit in a two year period.
Omega-3 FA significantly decreased MMP-9 levels in RRMS and may act as an immune-modulator that has potential therapeutic benefit in MS patients.
An additional trend relating to fat/oil consumption has been the transition from consumption of animal to vegetable sources for fat. For example, in 1920 animal sources were responsible for 81% of fat calories consumed in the U.S., whereas by 2000, vegetable oils provided over 54% of fat/oil calories (Figure 1). The major uses of vegetable oils in the U.S. as reflected by industry shipments are cooking, frying and salad oils (47%), shortening (45%), and margarines (5%)
cottonseed provides a major edible oil in Australia and China and other regions where cotton is a major crop and the seeds are a low-cost by-product of the fibre. For large-scale use in baking and frying, the food industry chooses commodity vegetable oils largely based on price, which is related to the location of production and whether the oil is a by-product. For example, in the U.S. soybean oil is often considered a by-product of the soy meal industry, and its 80% “market share” dominates the vegetable oil market, making it the largest single source of calories in most U.S. diets.
Nevertheless, despite these selections and modifications, the lipid composition of humans is strongly influenced by the fatty acid composition present in the diets. One example of how the composition of human storage and membrane lipids is influenced by the diet is shown in Figure 4 where the distribution of double bond positions of trans isomers in humans clearly reflects the distribution found in dietary hydrogenated vegetable oils
Because different human populations have very different diets, and because these same populations have very different causes of mortality, some members of the medical research community conclude that dietary fatty acids have a major impact on diseases (e.g. Wolfram, 2003). For decades, an emphasis on risks associated with saturated fatty acids and its relation to cholesterol metabolism has encouraged the consumption of more vegetable oil rather than animal fats. More recently, concern has increased about the role of the trans fatty acid isomers which are produced during the hydrogenation of vegetable oils and may have negative consequences. Also, in recent years evidence has accumulated that the balance of omega-3 and omega-6 unsaturated fatty acids in diets influences a wide range of human physiological responses including coronary heart disease (CHD). The dominance of plant oils with high omega-6 18:2 in many diets (e.g. U.S.) has led to omega-6/omega-3 consumption ratios near 10:1 in many western diets whereas populations which consume ratios near 1:1 (e.g. Greenland, Japan) have strikingly lower incidence of CHD. Possibly these different fatty acid compositions in diets may in part be causally related to the very different CHD levels shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Deaths due to cardiovascular disease in populations with different omega-6/omega-3 content of diets.
Cardiovascular Deaths per 100,000
One explanation offered for the strikingly different CHD mortality associated with high omega-6/omega-3 consumption ratios is the different fates of these structures in the biosynthetic pathways leading to prostaglandins and other eicosenoids. The omega-6 fatty acids are precursors to arachidonic acid which in turn produces prostaglandins and thromboxanes which promote blood clotting. In contrast, the omega-3 fatty acids are poor substrates for prostaglandin biosynthesis and act as competitive inhibitors of the arachidonic pathway.
The vegetable oils produced by soybean, palm, canola and other crops provide approximately 25% of the calories consumed by industrial nations. In addition to their dietary significance, vegetable oils are a major agricultural commodity, with worldwide production of 90 billion pounds, worth nearly $50 billion per year. This large market size and the fact that the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils influences both their physical properties and nutritional characteristics has attracted considerable interest toward modifying plant fatty acid production for both food and non-food uses. Many successes have already been achieved in altering the chain length and saturated/unsaturated fatty acid content of dietary plant oils by transgenic methods. Future efforts will lead to plant oils rich in omega-3 structures found in fish oils. Genomic approaches, including EST sequencing, microarrays and bioinformatics are now contributing greater understanding of the underlying metabolism of oilseeds and the regulatory networks that determine the quality and quantity of oils produced.
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