interesting! mushrooms and vitamin D4

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interesting! mushrooms and vitamin D4

Postby jimmylegs » Sat Feb 11, 2017 8:38 am

knowing in a very general way that mushrooms are a source of vit D2, i've always wondered about the related claims on cans of soup etc. today i just happened to follow up on the lingering question, with these interesting results:

Vitamin D4 in mushrooms and yeast (2013)
http://open.bu.edu/bitstream/handle/214 ... r_2013.pdf

De Luca, Weller, Blunt, & Neville, (1968) reported that the biological activity of vitamin D4 in rats with rickets was approximately 60% as effective in the treatment of the disease as compared to treatment using vitamin D3.
Previously, it was assumed that mushrooms could only produce vitamin D2 . The results of this study confirms recent research that has previously identified provitamin D4 and vitamin D4 in various edible mushroom species including white button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, and chanterelle (Phillips, Horst, Koszewski, & Simon, 2012).
Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms (2012)
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl ... ne.0040702

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection .... White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2–7.0 and 22.5–35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49–16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4.
Vitamin D and sterol composition of ten types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States (2011)
https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publi ... 115=260850

Vitamin D has been well established as critical for bone health, and more recently its potential role in immune function, prevention of some types of cancer, and in other diseases has received increasing attention. Vitamin D in foods occurs naturally primarily in animal products. Milk, fortified cereals, and an increasing number of other foods, including juices, processed cheese, yogurt, margarine, and ice cream, are fortified with vitamin D. Mushrooms are probably the richest natural non-animal food source of vitamin D, which occurs as vitamin D2. Analogous to the photochemical reactions taking place in skin exposed to sunlight, where exposure to ultra-violet (UV) light converts 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to vitamin D3, in mushrooms vitamin D2 is produced from ergosterol present on the surface of the mushroom upon exposure to sunlight or other sources of UV light. Recently, some mushroom producers have taken advantage of this fact and have produced vitamin D-enhanced mushrooms by processing with intentional exposure to UV light; these mushrooms are now available in some U.S. retail markets. The content of vitamin D in mushrooms can vary due to conditions of UV exposure, and to loss of vitamin D over time in UV-exposed mushrooms. The vitamin D content of different types of mushrooms in the U.S. retail market had not been determined prior to this work. To provide vitamin D and sterol composition data for the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), ten types of mushrooms, including commercially produced UV-treated portabella, were sampled as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) in cooperation with the Mushroom Council (San Jose, CA) and analyzed for vitamin D2, ergosterol and ergosterol metabolites, and phytosterols. Sterols were analyzed by GC-FID with mass spectrometric confirmation of components. Vitamin D was assayed using HPLC with a [3H]-vitamin D3 internal standard. Ergosterol was highest in shiitake and maitake (mean, 79-85 mg/100g) and lowest in morel and enoki (26-36 mg/100g); the range was <10 mg/100g among white button composites but 20-50 mg/100g for samples of other types. Only morel contained brassicasterol (28-29 mg/100g) and campesterol (<1-5.7 mg/100g). Vitamin D was low (0.1-0.3 µg/100g) in Agaricus bisporus (white button, crimini, portabella) and enoki, moderate in shiitake and oyster (0.5-0.9 µg/100g), and high in morel, chanterelle, maitake (5.3-29.5 µg/100g), and UV-treated portabella (3.4-20.9 µg/100g), with significant variability among composites for some types. A unique finding was the presence of another vitamer, possibly D4, which would be the product of UV irradiation of ergosta-5,7-dienol that is present in mushrooms. The level of this vitamer was correlated with the D2 concentration and was highest in the UV-treated mushrooms (up to up to 35.4 µg/100g). Further work is underway to identify this component. SR is the primary source of U.S. food composition data for estimation of nutrient intake from food consumption data, and the vitamin D data from this study were incorporated in Release 22 of SR (USDA, 2009). These values will be added to the Food and Nutrient Dataset for Dietary Surveys, used in the What We Eat in America component of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (USDA, 2010), facilitating research requiring knowledge of the vitamin D content of the U.S. diet.
i always 'sunbathe' mushrooms on the windowsill before putting them into meals. but i also nearly always go with crimini. guess i'll be choosing portabella more often!
odd sx? no dx? check w/ dietitian
DRI=MINIMUM eg bit.ly/1vgQclQ
99% don't meet these. meds/lifestyle can affect levels
status can be low in ms & other cond'ns
'but my results are normal'. typical panels don't test all
deficits occur in 'normal' range
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