Neuroimmunol. 2007 Mar;184(1-2):17-26. Epub 2007 Jan 10.
Neurodegeneration in autoimmune demyelination: recent mechanistic insights reveal novel therapeutic targets.
Aktas O, Waiczies S, Zipp F.
Institute for Neuroimmunology, Neuroscience Research Center, Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and the major cause of neurological disability in young adults in Western countries.
In spite of intensive research efforts, treatment options established to date do not sufficiently prevent the accumulation of tissue damage and clinical disability in patients with MS.
We here describe recently identified molecules responsible for the inflammatory and the neurodegenerative processes in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and review new treatment options targeting both aspects of this disease.
PMID: 17222462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Nutr Res. 2009 Jul;29(7):437-56.
Green tea and bone metabolism.
Shen CL, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Wang JS.
Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430-9097, USA. email@example.com
Nutr Res. 2009 Sep;29(9):684.
Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men.
Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures.
This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects.
In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.
PMID: 19700031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC2754215
Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Aug;26(4):373S-388S.
Effects of green tea and EGCG on cardiovascular and metabolic health.
DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Department of Human Nutrition and Health, P.O. Box 3255, Bldg. 241/425, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.
Since ancient times green tea has been considered a health-promoting beverage. In recent years, scientists throughout the world have investigated the potential benefits of green tea and its most abundant catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).
The anti-cancer effects of green tea and EGCG were the focus of early research, and encouraging data from in vitro, animal model, and human studies have emerged.
Due to the dominant role of cardiovascular disease and the dramatic rise of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus as major and interlinked healthcare problems, green tea and EGCG are increasingly being investigated in these areas.
Dose-response relationships observed in several epidemiological studies have indicated that pronounced cardiovascular and metabolic health benefits can be obtained by regular consumption of 5-6 or more cups of green tea per day.
Furthermore, intervention studies using similar amounts of green tea, containing 200-300 mg of EGCG, have demonstrated its usefulness for maintaining cardiovascular and metabolic health.
Additionally, there are numerous in vivo studies demonstrating that green tea and EGCG exert cardiovascular and metabolic benefits in these model systems. Therefore, green tea and EGCG can be regarded as food components useful for the maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. To prove the effectiveness for disease prevention or treatment, several multi-center, long-term clinical studies investigating the effects of one precisely-defined green tea product on cardiovascular and metabolic endpoints would be necessary. The aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the research investigating the effects of green tea and green tea catechins on cardiovascular and metabolic health.
PMID: 17906191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Mar 16;1478(1):51-60.
Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by green tea catechins.
Demeule M, Brossard M, Pagé M, Gingras D, Béliveau R.
Laboratoire de Médecine Moléculaire, Hopital Sainte-Justine - UQAM, C.P. 8888, Succursale centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada.
We have investigated the effects of different biologically active components from natural products, including green tea polyphenols (GTP), resveratrol, genistein and organosulfur compounds from garlic, on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and MMP-12 activities.
GTP caused the strongest inhibition of the three enzymes, as measured by fluorescence assays using gelatin or elastin as substrates.
The inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 caused by GTP was confirmed by gelatin zymography and was observed for MMPs associated with both various rat tissues and human brain tumors (glioblastoma and pituitary tumors).
The activities of MMPs were also measured in the presence of various catechins isolated from green tea including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate(ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (C).
The most potent inhibitors of these activities, as measured by fluorescence and by gelatin or casein zymography, were EGCG and ECG.
GTP and the different catechins had no effect on pancreatic elastase, suggesting that the effects of these molecules on MMP activities are specific.
Furthermore, in vitro activation of proMMP-2 secreted from the glioblastomas cell line U-87 by the lectin concanavalin A was completely inhibited by GTP and specifically by EGCG. These results indicate that catechins from green tea inhibit MMP activities and proMMP-2 activation.
PMID: 10719174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
harry1 wrote:Question ... do you think that drinking Green Tea (bags) thru out the day is sufficient or should we take Green Tea Capsules ?? I used to drink Green Tea all day long as i love it however i quit a ways back as i was concerned after reading that it contains fluoride which may not be good for us with demyelinating diseases.
PMID: 12499631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Dec;25(12):1513-8.
Neuroprotective effects of the green tea components theanine and catechins.
Central Research Institute, Itoen, Ltd, Shuzuoka, Japan.
The neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea are discussed.
Although the death of cultured rat cortical neurons was induced by the application of glutamic acid, this neuronal death was suppressed with exposure to theanine.
The death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons caused by transient forebrain ischemia in the gerbil was inhibited with the ventricular preadministration of theanine.
The neuronal death of the hippocampal CA3 region by kainate was also prevented by the administration of theanine. Theanine has a higher binding capacity for the AMPA/kainate receptors than for NMDA receptors, although the binding capacity in all cases is markedly less than that of glutamic acid.
The results of the present study suggest that the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of theanine is related not only to the glutamate receptor but also to other mechanisms such as the glutamate transporter, although further studies are needed.
One of the onset mechanisms for arteriosclerosis, a major factor in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, is probably the oxidative alteration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by active oxygen species. The oxidative alterations of LDL were shown to be prevented by tea catechins. Scavenging of *O(2)(-) was also exhibited by tea catechins.
The neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea are a focus of considerable attention, and further studies are warranted.
PMID: 12499631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Apr;928:274-80.
A new function of green tea: prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.
Sueoka N, Suganuma M, Sueoka E, Okabe S, Matsuyama S, Imai K, Nakachi K, Fujiki H.
Saitama Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan.
In the normal human life span, there occur lifestyle-related diseases that may be preventable with nontoxic agents.
This paper deals with the preventive activity of green tea in some lifestyle-related diseases.
Green tea is one of the most practical cancer preventives, as we have shown in various in vitro and in vivo experiments, along with epidemiological studies.
Among various biological effects of green tea, we have focused on its inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha gene expression mediated through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation.
Based on our recent results with TNF-alpha-deficient mice, TNF-alpha is an endogenous tumor promoter. TNF-alpha is also known to be a central mediator in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.
We therefore hypothesized that green tea might be a preventive agent for chronic inflammatory diseases.
To test this hypothesis, TNF-alpha transgenic mice, which overexpress TNF-alpha only in the lungs, were examined. The TNF-alpha transgenic mouse is an animal model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis which also frequently develops lung cancer.
Expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were inhibited in the lungs of these mice after treatment with green tea in drinking water for 4 months. In addition, judging from the results of a prospective cohort study in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, green tea helps to prevent cardiovascular disease.
In this study, a decreased relative risk of death from cardiovascular disease was found for people consuming over 10 cups of green tea a day, and green tea also had life-prolonging effects on cumulative survival.
These data suggest that green tea has preventive effects on both chronic inflammatory diseases and lifestyle-related diseases (including cardiovascular disease and cancer), resulting in prolongation of life span.
PMID: 11795518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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