<shortened url>1: Clin Cancer Res. 2007 May 15;13(10):3024-32. Links
Capsaicin is a novel blocker of constitutive and interleukin-6-inducible STAT3 activation.Bhutani M, Pathak AK, Nair AS, Kunnumakkara AB, Guha S, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB.
Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
PURPOSE: Capsaicin, a constituent of green and red peppers, has been linked with suppression of tumorigenesis through a mechanism that is not well understood. Because the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been closely linked with tumorigenesis, we investigated the effect of this vanilloid on the STAT3 pathway in human multiple myeloma cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of capsaicin on both constitutive and interleukin-6-induced STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases, and STAT3-regulated gene products involved in proliferation, survival and angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells was investigated. RESULTS: We found that capsaicin inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3 in multiple myeloma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with minimum effect on STAT5. Capsaicin also inhibited the interleukin-6-induced STAT3 activation. The activation of Janus-activated kinase 1 and c-Src, implicated in STAT3 activation, was also inhibited by the vanilloid, with no effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. Pervanadate reversed the capsaicin-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Capsaicin down-regulated the expression of the STAT3-regulated gene products, such as cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, capsaicin induced the accumulation of cells in G(1) phase, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis, as indicated by caspase activation. Capsaicin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of Velcade and thalidomide in multiple myeloma cells. When administered i.p., capsaicin inhibited the growth of human multiple myeloma xenograft tumors in male athymic nu/nu mice. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results suggest that capsaicin is a novel blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of multiple myeloma and other cancers.
1: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 17;105(24):8357-62. Epub 2008 Jun 11. Links
Modulation of dendritic cell differentiation by HLA-G and ILT4 requires the IL-6--STAT3 signaling pathway.Liang S, Ristich V, Arase H, Dausset J, Carosella ED, Horuzsko A.
Center for Molecular Chaperone/Radiobiology and Cancer Virology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1410 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
The expression of Ig-like transcript (ILT) inhibitory receptors is a characteristic of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs). However, the mechanisms of modulation of DCs via ILT receptors remain poorly defined. HLA-G is a preferential ligand for several ILTs. Recently, we demonstrated that triggering of ILT4 by HLA-G1 inhibits maturation of human monocyte-derived conventional DCs and murine DCs from ILT4 transgenic mice, resulting in diminished expression of MHC class II molecules, CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules, and prolongation of skin allograft survival. Different isoforms of HLA-G have diverse effects on the efficiency to induce ILT-mediated signaling. In this work, we show that HLA-G1 tetrameric complex and HLA-G5 dimer, but not HLA-G5 monomer, induce strong ILT-mediated signaling. We determined that the arrest of maturation of ILT4-positive DCs by HLA-G ligands involves the IL-6 signaling pathway and STAT3 activation. Ligation of ILT4 with HLA-G on DCs results in recruitment of SHP-1 and SHP-2 protein tyrosine phosphatases. We propose a model where SHP-2 and the IL-6-STAT3 signaling pathway play critical roles in the modulation of DC differentiation by ILT4 and HLA-G.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11561085?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum1: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Oct;299(1):238-46. Links
Capsaicin inhibits Jurkat T-cell activation by blocking calcium entry current I(CRAC).Fischer BS, Qin D, Kim K, McDonald TV.
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.
Capacitative calcium entry (CCE) through stores-operated Ca2+ channels is an absolute requirement for normal activation of T lymphocytes. Organic blockers/inhibitors of the channel(s) that carry the inward Ca2+ current (I(CRAC)) responsible for CCE are few. Here we show that capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of hot chili pepper, blocks receptor-stimulated Ca2+ entry in Jurkat T cells. Indo-1 measurements of intracellular calcium show that capsaicin blocks CCE without affecting release of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive internal Ca2+ stores with an IC50 of 32 microM. Block of Ca2+ entry by capsaicin is identical whether CCE is evoked by T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, heterologous muscarinic M1 receptor stimulation, or via thapsigargin depletion of internal Ca2+ stores. Patch-clamp experiments show that capsaicin rapidly and reversibly blocks I(CRAC) with an identical dose response as seen with indo-1 measurements. The major voltage-gated K+ channel in Jurkat cells, Kv1.3, is also blocked by capsaicin. Although Kv1.3 block may contribute to reducing CCE by changes in membrane potential, block of I(CRAC) is the primary mechanism by which capsaicin reduces CCE. Capsaicin analogs capsazepine and resiniferatoxin also produce inhibition of CCE via block of I(CRAC). Upon application of capsaicin to Jurkat cells in culture we observed an inhibition of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in response to TCR stimulation. The dose dependence of capsaicin's reduction of IL-2 was comparable with its block of I(CRAC), thereby illustrating the functional relevance of capsaicin's block of lymphocyte CCE. Thus, capsaicin and its numerous analogs may have potential use as immunomodulatory drugs and should be further investigated in models of inflammation and T-cell activation.
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