There are two METALS that are a problem for MS folks.
ZINC and IRON
Some ZINC is good and necessary for good health however HIGH levels of ZINC is highly suspected of causing MS. Several "hot clusters" of MS have been found around locations where high levels of zinc were being released.
I do not think it would be wise for a person with MS to take ZINC supplements beyond 25 mg (167 %DV) that is in most multivitamins.
I think this may have something to to with MMP formation. All 27 types of MMPs have a zinc at the "business end" and use it to cut our Myelin into little pieces by breaking the hydrogen bonds. I think that the body may adapt to the high levels of ZINC by making LOTS of "very agressive" MMPs.
MMPs levels are elevated JUST BEFORE and DURING an MS attack.
: J Neuroimmunol. 1997 Feb;72(2):155-61.
Matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor and multiple sclerosis: an
Chandler S, Miller KM, Clements JM, Lury J, Corkill D, Anthony DC, Adams SE,
British Biotech Pharmaceuticals Limited, Cowley, Oxford, UK.
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of at least 14 zinc-dependent enzymes which are known to degrade the protein components of extracellular matrix. In addition, MMPs and related enzymes can also process a number of cell surface cytokines, receptors, and other soluble proteins. In particular we have shown that the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, from its membrane-bound precursor is an MMP-dependent process.
MMPs are expressed by the inflammatory cells which are associated with CNS lesions in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in tissue from patients with the disease. MMP expression will contribute to the tissue destruction and inflammation in MS. Drugs which inhibit MMP activity are effective in animal models of MS and may prove to be useful therapies in the clinic.
PMID: 9042108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1: Arch Environ Health. 2001 Sep-Oct;56(5):389-95.
Arch Environ Health. 2002 Jul-Aug;57(4):383; author reply 383.
A multiple sclerosis cluster associated with a small, north-central Illinois
Schiffer RB, McDermott MP, Copley C.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,
Lubbock 79430, USA. email@example.com
The authors investigated a reported incidence cluster of multiple sclerosis (MS)cases in a small, north-central Illinois community to determine validity and statistical significance. DePue, Illinois--a small, north-central Illinois community--has previously been the site of significant environmental heavy-metal exposure from a zinc smelter. Significant contamination of soil and water with zinc and other metals has been documented in this community during the time period of interest. In the mid-1990s, several cases of MS were reported to the
Illinois Department of Public Health within the geographic limits of this
community. Available medical records from purported MS cases reported to the Illinois Department of Public Health were reviewed, and living individuals were seen and examined. Statistical analyses were conducted with clinically definite MS cases; onset dates were determined by first symptom, and expected incidence rates were determined from published epidemiologic studies. Nine new cases of clinically definite MS occurred among residents of DePue, Illinois, during the period between 1971 and 1990. Seven of the 8 living subjects included in the final analyses were examined by one author (RS).
The computed incidence rate deriving from these cases within DePue Township, Illinois, represented a statistically significant excess of new MS cases over expected. During the period from 1971 through 1990, a significant excess of MS cases occurred within the population of DePue, Illinois.
Significant exposure of this population to mitogenic trace metals, including zinc, was also documented during this time period.
PMID: 11777019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Neurology. 1994 Feb;44(2):329-33.
A genetic marker and family history study of the upstate New York multiple sclerosis cluster.
Schiffer RB, Weitkamp LR, Ford C, Hall WJ.
Department of Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY 14642.
We report nine additional cases of new-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) among employees of an upstate New York manufacturing plant that uses zinc as a primary metal. These cases, identified during the decade 1980 to 1989, had clinical onset of the disease between 1979 and 1987. The new cases confirm the increased incidence of MS previously reported in the plant population for the 1970 to 1979 decade. The MS subjects in this occupationally based cluster do not seem different from other MS patients with regard to rates of familial MS or the frequencies of alleles for human leukocyte (HLA-DR) antigens or transferrin. The frequency distribution of alleles for transferrin (an iron- and zinc-binding protein) may differ in these and other MS subjects compared with controls.
PMID: 8309585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Neurology. 1987 Oct;37(10):1672-7.
Multiple sclerosis and the workplace: report of an industry-based cluster.
Stein EC, Schiffer RB, Hall WJ, Young N.
Department of Preventive and Community Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY 14642.
Eleven cases of MS occurred within a 10-year period in a zinc-related manufacturing plant. The observed disease incidence was greater than expected from population data, using multiple approaches to statistical analysis (p less than or equal to 0.01). A case-control study, performed to examine several zinc parameters in blood, failed to indicate specific abnormalities among the MS patients, but all subjects (both MS and controls) working in the plant demonstrated higher serum zinc levels than all subjects (MS and controls) not working there.
PMID: 3658175 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]