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I just read this over on MDA website as this research was posted there yesterday about astrocytes involvement with causing ALS as it looks like malfunctioning astrocytes may have a large involvement in numerous neurological diseases from these different studies posted reciently.
It's in an EAE mouse model. Not MS, but more like ADEM in humans. EAE is monophasic, not relapsing-remitting.
Researchers injected these two- to five-month-old mice with tamoxifen and, 30 to 40 days later, injected them with a protein that causes experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a widely used model for MS.
This is very interesting.
If you google reactive astrocytes you will soon discover they are the main cellular component of the glial scar (google that as well) or see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glial_scar . They sound very much like the white scar tissue we have in our brains. They are suppossed to seal injured areas in the CNS to prevent microbial infection and limit cellular damage. They are also suppossed to stimulate revascularisation of blood capillaries. In other words they are one of natures band aids. The problem is the scar tissue creates a barrier that stops axonal regrowth.
In the link attached you will see that Interleukins are a family of scar inducing cellular messengers. There has been recent research that suggests that vitamin D binds to a T cell receptor called CD8 and that action stops Interleukin 17 from binding to CD8 and the MS process is blocked. This model explains why MS occurs less frequently closer to the equator as Vitamin D is synthesised in the body from sunlight.
Glial scar formation can be suppressed by using Olomoucine, a purine derivative or Ribavirin, a Purine nucleoside.
All of this fits with my understanding of why I am staying well on my mix of Valtrex and Avonex. The key ingredient is Valtrex because it is a Purine Nucleoside. I have been taking two Valtrex tablets daily and 1 Avonex injection per week for 10 years and have no MS symptoms. Please read my posts that are now scattered across this forum or my note on Valtrex and Avonex. I still believe you need both and I'm sure you need very long term treatment.
We still don't know why we get MS but what I have been doing is working and this sort of research supports it.