Given my focus on hyperinsulinemia, I was especially drawn to the line, "increase blood insulin in response to glucose."
From Fats that Heal Fats that Kill by Udo Erasmus (pages 111-112):
"A Silver Spring, Maryland researcher (Mary Enig, Trans-Fatty Acids in the Food Supply: a comprehensive report covering 60 years of research, 1993) has researched, followed, and summarized others' research on the effects of trans-fatty acids for many years. Research from Harvard (Willet, 1994) and other institutions show that besides interfering with EFA functions, raising total cholesterol and lowering the 'good' HDL, inhibiting conversions of EFAs to their derivatives, and worsening essential fatty acid deficiency, trans-fatty acids also:
- raise Lp(a), a strong risk factor in human atherosclerosis;
- lower the efficiency of B cell response and increase proliferation of T cells (B and T cells are involved in immune funtions);
- decrease testosterone and increase abnormal sperm (in animals);
- interfere with pregnancy;
- correlate with low birth weight in humans;
- lower the quality of breast milk and decrease volume of cream;
- increase blood insulin in response to glucose;
- decrease insulin response (undesirable for diabetics);
- alter the activities of a liver enzyme system that metabolizes carcinogens and toxins (mixed function oxidase cytochromes P-448/450);
- alter membrane transport and fluidity;
- alter the size, number, and fatty acid composition of adipose (fat) cells;
- increase peroxisomal activity; and
- interact with fish oil and tissue w3s.
Since trans-fatty acids have detrimental effects on our cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system, energy metabolism, fat and essential fatty acid metabolism, liver function, and cell membranes, we should consider margarines, shortenings, shortening oils, and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to be harmful to human health!"