"Astaxanthin, The Multifunctional Antioxidant
Astaxanthin is a unique and multitalented antioxidant. It is also one of the reasons for wild salmon's status as a leading superstar in the realm of anti-aging foods. However, it is also important to take astaxanthin as a nutritional supplement to ensure optimum benefits.
Astaxanthin has the ability to protect the cell membrane from free radicals also known as reactive oxygen species, or ROS, including the most damaging of all, the singlet oxygen.
Carotenoids in general, and astaxanthin in particular, effectively absorb energy from free radicals and the singlet oxygen.
Astaxanthin provides powerful protection to the lipid bi-layer that surrounds our cells as well as the mitochondria and the nucleus within the cells. This dual function of protection is unique to astaxanthin and one of the reasons it plays such an important role in the protection of cells. Because astaxanthin can penetrate different portions of the cell, it protects all organs and systems throughout the body. This broad-based protection is the foundation for the multifunctional benefits that have become associated with astaxanthin and its anti-aging properties. The health areas that have been studied include:
> Cardiovascular: Recent studies have indicated the tendency of astaxanthin to reduce blood pressure. The antihypertensive mechanism may in part be explained by the tendency of astaxanthin to increase blood flow. It is hypothesized by the researchers that this results from blood vessel relaxation and dilation. Also, in one of the studies, a 50% drop in the incidence of stroke was noted in the astaxanthin-treated group.
> Type 2 diabetes: A preliminary study indicates that astaxanthin supplementation may improve control of type 2 diabetes and inhibit progressive kidney damage. This study also supports the findings of an earlier study that indicates that astaxanthin may preserve pancreatic function as well as insulin sensitivity.
Other benefits include:
>Improved skin elasticity and reduced appearance of fine lines
>Eye fatigue (asthenopia) reduction
>Improved muscle endurance and recovery following vigorous exercise
>Reduced gastric inflammation and dyspepsia
It is important to note that all of these studies were performed using the AstaREAL brand of natural astaxanthin, which is produced from the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, a natural carotenoid pigment and biological antioxidant believed to be the world's richest source of astaxanthin, in fully enclosed and protected biosystems either in Sweden or on the Island of Maui in Hawaii. As with so many nutritional supplements, it is critical to know that you are getting the highest-quality, most vigorously tested -- for both safety and efficacy -- formula possible. AstaREAL is a trademark of Fuji Chemical Industry."
Both pioglitazone and rosiglitazone……significantly decreased the lesion size (by 57 to 68%, p<0.05), motor neuron loss (by 3 to 10 fold, p<0.05), myelin loss (by 66 to 75%, p<0.05), astrogliosis (by 46 to 61%, p<0.05) and microglial activation (by 59 to 78%, p<0.05) after SCI.
Pioglitazone also significantly enhanced the post-SCI induction of neuroprotective heat-shock proteins and anti-oxidant enzymes.
the rather unexpected similarity between spinal cord injury (SCI) and MS where axonal injury, oligodendrocyte apoptosis and demyelination are all present. In SCI, transection of axons leads to delayed oligodendrocyte apoptosis with secondary demyelination…..
This implies that axonal injury could trigger demyelination. In this instance, lesions develop from the axon (inside) to the myelin (outside) (Inside-Out model).
Below is a link to an abstract linking immune response to worsening of atherosclerosis. This might not seem like it would be important compared to MS. But, in Dr. Le Gacs papers, listed on the site, he goes into specific detail about vascular events causing lesions in the capillaries (implicating BBB breakdown initially) being the first observed events in the pathogenesis of MS -- not demyelination, which comes later. This may have serious implications to further understanding how MS begins, and ways to stop, minimize damage or a faster track to diagnosis of MS. http://www.nature.com/modpathol/journal ... 0791a.html
So far the best results seem to be shown by typing "Legac vascular" into the search engines. But like me, you are probably going to bump into sites which want money for the information. I'm too cheap to spend money before I know for sure that it's the paper I want.lyndacarol wrote:I have searched at the nature site, tried google--no luck. I would like to find it directly, can anyone help me? I believe his name is Eric Legac, M.D. in France.
Mod Pathol 2003;16(5):460–470
Granzyme B in Atherosclerosis and Transplant Vascular Disease: Association with Cell Death and Atherosclerotic Disease Severity
Jonathan C Choy B.Sc.1, Paul C McDonald Ph.D.1, Agripina C Suarez B.Sc.1, Vivian H Y Hung1, Janet E Wilson B.Sc., M.T.1, Bruce M McManus M.D., Ph.D.1 and David J Granville Ph.D.1
1The iCAPTUR4E Centre/UBC McDonald Research Laboratories, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, St. Paul's Hospital/Providence Health Care–University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Correspondence: David J. Granville, Ph.D., The iCAPTUR4E Centre/UBC McDonald Research Laboratories, Room 292, Burrard Building, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6Z 1Y6 Canada. fax: (604) 806-8351; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted 13 February 2003.
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