PointsNorth wrote:Found within a CFS/ME forum:
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10 ... 9709105320
Thanks PN~I have the same study in my book.
Recent cerebrospinal fluid studies have confirmed that protease are also involved in CFS and fibromyalgia. These diseases have been named after their primary symptoms, but a lack of protease will lead to the same findings in CFS and fibro that we have seen in MS; low B12, high homocysteine, missing essential amino acids, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, elevated prolactin, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, elevated TNF, IL-6, and interferon-gamma, activated dendritic cells, dysregulated iron, white matter lesions, activated kynurenine pathway, low vitamin D, brain gray matter loss, low dopamine, etc.
Here are a few studies that demonstrate this.
In the following study researchers found that fibromyalgia (FM) patients had higher levels than normal of TNF.
Cytokine patterns in fibromyalgia and their correlation with clinical manifestations.
Bazzichi, L., A. Rossi, G. Massimetti, G. Giannaccini, T. Giuliano, F. De Feo, A. Ciapparelli, L. Dell’Osso, S. Bombardieri. 2007. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 25(2):225-30.
"Higher levels of …TNF-alpha were found in FM patients than in controls. Significant correlations between the biochemical parameters and clinical data were found.”
The following study identified elevated tumor necrosis factor in chronic fatigue syndrome.
Dysregulated expression of tumor necrosis factor in chronic fatigue syndrome: interrelations with cellular sources and patterns of soluble immune mediator expression.
Patarca, R., N.G. Kilmas, S. Lugtendorf, M. Antoni, M.A. Fletcher. 1994. Clin Infect Dis. 18(Suppl.1):S147-53.
“Among a group of 70 individuals who met the criteria established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta) for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), 12%-28% had serum levels exceeding 95% of control values for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha…”
ACTIVATED KYNURENINE PATHWAY
The following study confirms kynurenine pathway (KYN-p) activity is involved in fibromyalgia.
Kynurenine pathway activity linked to fibromyalgia fatigue.
Boomershine, C.S., D. Titova, C. Zhu, A.M. Oeser, M.W. Calcutt, A. Bian, T. Gebretsadik, R. Johnson, C. Michael Stein. 2009.
“Increased KYN-p activity is associated with FM fatigue in humans and a murine model. IDO enzyme inhibition may be a novel method for treating FM fatigue.”
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DYSFUNCTION
The following study concludes that autonomic dysfunction is “inherent” to fibromyalgia (FM).
Autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia assessed by the Composite Autonomic Symptoms Scale (COMPASS).
Solano, C., A. Martinez, L. Becerril, A. Vargas, J. Figueroa, C. Navarro, C. Ramos-Remus, M. Martinez-Lavin. 2009. J Clin Rheumatol 15(4):172-6.
“Patients with FM have multiple nonpain symptoms related to different expressions of autonomic dysfunction. There is a correlation between a questionnaire that measures FM severity (FIQ) and an autonomic dysfunction questionnaire (COMPASS). Such correlation suggests that autonomic dysfunction is inherent to FM.”
MISSING ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
Studies confirm that fibromyalgia (FM) patients lack numerous essential amino acids (AAs). In the following study entitled “Altered amino acid homeostasis in subjects affected by fibromyalgia” researchers found that fibromyalgia patients had significantly lower levels of the essential amino acids valine, methionine, phenylalanine, and threonine. The patients also lacked the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is an amino acid the body makes from the essential amino acid phenylalanine.
Altered amino acid homeostasis in subjects affected by fibromyalgia.
Bazzichi, L., L. Palego, G. Giannaccini, A. Rossi, F. De Feo, C. Giacomelli, L. Betti, L. Giusti, G. Mascia, S. Bombardieri, A. Lucacchini. 2009. Clin Bioche. 42(10-11):1064-70.
“Significant lower plasma…tyrosine (Tyr), valine, methionine, phenylalanine and threonine concentrations, and the sum of essential AAs were observed in FM patients vs. healthy controls…”
In the following study published in The Journal of Pain, Dr. Patrick Wood, a former scientific advisor for the National Fibromyalgia Association, found that the brains of people with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have reduced levels of dopamine.
Reduced presynaptic dopamine activity in fibromyalgia syndrome demonstrated with positron emission tomography: a pilot study.
Wood, P.B., J.C. Patterson 2nd, J.J. Sunderland, K.H. Tainter, M.F. Glabus, D.L. Lilien. 2007. J Pain 8(1):51-8. Epub 2006 Oct 4.
“It appears that FMS might be characterized by a disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission…An association between FMS and reduced dopamine metabolism within the pain neuromatrix provides important insights into the pathophysiology of this mysterious disorder.”
BRAIN GRAY MATTER LOSS
Low dopamine will lead to brain gray matter loss.In the following study published in the Journal of Neuroscience researchers found that the longer the individuals had fibromyalgia, the greater the brain gray matter loss, with each year of fibromyalgia being equivalent to 9.5 times the loss in normal aging.
Accelerated brain gray matter loss in fibromyalgia patients: premature aging of the brain?
Kuchinad, A. P. Schweinhardt, D.A. Seminowicz, P.B. Wood, B.A. Chizh, M.C. Bushnell. 2007. J Neurosci 11;27(15):4004-7.
“We found that fibromyalgia patients had significantly less total gray matter volume and showed a 3.3 times greater age-associated decrease in gray matter than healthy controls. The longer the individuals had had fibromyalgia, the greater the gray matter loss, with each year of fibromyalgia being equivalent to 9.5 times the loss in normal aging.”
VIAMIN D DEFICIENCY
Vitamin D deficiency is also common in fibromyalgia, as the following study states.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia.
Armstrong, D.J., G.K. Meenagh, I. Bickle, A.S. Lee, E.S. Curran, M.B. Finch. 2007. Clin Rheumatol. (4):551-4.
“Vitamin D deficiency is common in fibromyalgia and occurs more frequently in patients with anxiety and depression. The nature and direction of the causal relationship remains unclear, but there are definite implications for long-term bone health.”
ACTIVATED DENDRITIC CELLS
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are also involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). One study found that CFS patients had approximately 4.7 times as many pDCs as the controls (De Meirleir, 2013).
Researchers in the following study found that prolactin was “significantly increased” in patients with fibromyalgia.
Biochemical changes in fibromyalgia.
Samborski, W., T. Stratz, T. Schochat, P. Mennet, W. Müller. 1996. Z Rheumatol. 55(3):168-73.
“In comparison to healthy controls, patients with fibromyalgia revealed…significantly increased level of prolactin.”