milesap: Very interesting. The part that caught my eye?: "However, we sorely miss the identification of normo-physiological mechanisms other than actual replication that can enhance endogenous virus expression to an extent leading to activation of the immune system. Late infection with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with MS, and in vitro EBV infection of blood leucocytes and astrocytes leads to activation of HERVs . Maybe, late EBV infection in vivo triggers large scale HERV activation."