PM10

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PM10

Postby Petr75 » Fri Jul 13, 2018 12:04 pm

May 2018
METIS Department, EHESP French School of Public Health, Rennes, France ..
Ozone, NO2 and PM10 are associated with the occurrence of multiple sclerosis relapses. Evidence from seasonal multi-pollutant analyses
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 5118300422

Highlights
•Season-dependent associations between short term exposure to NO2 and O3 and risk of MS relapses were observed.
•Confirmation of PM10-associated risk of MS relapses.
•A multi-pollutant approach should be systematically intended, especially when assessing level of PM10 and NO2.
•Individual characteristics should be considered alongside other MS relapses risk factors.

Conclusion
We observed significant single-pollution associations between the occurrence of MS relapses and exposures to NO2, O3 and PM10, only O3 remained significantly associated with occurrence of MS relapses in the multi-pollutant model.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Fri Jul 13, 2018 12:12 pm

2017 Sep 27
Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands
Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Netherlands: A Population-based Case-control Study
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29989551

BACKGROUND:
Recently, there has been increasing evidence that exposure to air pollution is linked to neurodegenerative diseases, but little is known about the association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

CONCLUSIONS:
Based on a large population-based case-control study, we report evidence for the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased susceptibility to ALS. Our findings further support the necessity for regulatory public health interventions to combat air pollution levels and provide additional insight into the potential pathophysiology of ALS.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Fri Jul 27, 2018 7:54 am

2015 Dec 6
Epigenetics and Toxicology Lab - Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via San Barnaba, Italy
Effects of particulate matter exposure on multiple sclerosis hospital admission in Lombardy region, Italy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4797990/

..Results
A higher RR of hospital admission for MS relapse was associated with exposure to PM10 at different time intervals. The maximum effect of PM10 on MS hospitalization was found for exposure between days 0 and 7: Hospital admission for MS increased 42% (95%CI 1.39–1.45) on the days preceded by one week with PM10 levels in the highest quartile. The p-value for trend across quartiles was < 0.001.

Conclusions
These data support the hypothesis that air pollution may have a role in determining MS occurrence and relapses. Our findings could open new avenues for determining the pathogenic mechanisms of MS and potentially be applied to other autoimmune diseases.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Tue Aug 07, 2018 9:08 pm

2014 May
State Meteorological Agency (AEMET), Madrid, Spain
Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24583390

Abstract
A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM10-PM2.5-PM1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM10. Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM1, one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM1.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Wed Aug 22, 2018 11:03 am

2018 Aug 17
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, ASL Roma 1, 00147 Rome, Italy
Short-Term Effects of Heat on Mortality and Effect Modification by Air Pollution in 25 Italian Cities.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30126130

Abstract
Evidence on the health effects of extreme temperatures and air pollution is copious. However few studies focused on their interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate daily PM10 and ozone as potential effect modifiers of the relationship between temperature and natural mortality in 25 Italian cities. Time-series analysis was run for each city. To evaluate interaction, a tensor product between mean air temperature (lag 0⁻3) and either PM10 or ozone (both lag 0⁻5) was defined and temperature estimates were extrapolated at low, medium, and high levels of pollutants. Heat effects were estimated as percent change in mortality for increases in temperature between 75th and 99th percentiles. Results were pooled by geographical area. Differential temperature-mortality risks by air pollutants were found. For PM10, estimates ranged from 3.9% (low PM10) to 14.1% (high PM10) in the North, from 3.6% to 24.4% in the Center, and from 7.5% to 21.6% in the South. Temperature-related mortality was similarly modified by ozone in northern and central Italy, while no effect modification was observed in the South. This study underlines the synergistic effects of heat and air pollution on mortality. Considering the predicted increase in heat waves and stagnation events in the Mediterranean countries such as Italy, it is time to enclose air pollution within public health heat prevention plans.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Sat Aug 25, 2018 8:12 pm

2018 Aug 22
Key Laboratory of State Forestry Administration on Bamboo Resources and Utilization, China National Bamboo Research Center, State Forestry Administration, Hangzhou, Zhe Jiang, China
Phyllostachys edulis forest reduces atmospheric PM2.5 and PAHs on hazy days at suburban area
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30135438

Abstract
This study is aim to illustrate Phyllostachys edulis' role in affecting air quality under hazy day and solar day. P. edulis is a crucial plants growing well at suburban area at China Southern. In this manuscript, on 2 weather conditions (hazy day; solar day), changes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), associated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and PAHs in leaves and soils were measured, with PM-detection equipment and the GC-MC method, in a typical bamboo forest at suburban areas. The results showed that: (1) Bamboo forest decreased atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations significantly by 20% and 15%, respectively, on the hazy day nightfall time, when they were times higher than that on any other time. Also, similar effects on atmospheric PAHs and VOCs were found. (2) Significant increases in PAHs of leaves and soil were found inside the forest on the hazy day. (3) Bamboo forest also reduced the atmospheric VOC concentrations, and changed the compounds of 10 VOCs present in the highest concentration list. Thus, bamboo forests strongly regulate atmospheric PM2.5 through capture or retention, for the changes in atmospheric VOCs and increase in PAHs of leaves and soil.
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Re: PM10

Postby NHE » Sun Aug 26, 2018 1:21 am

This may be of interest.

Birch trees halve traffic pollution
http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/lec/news-and ... news/2013/

Here's the published research.

Impact of roadside tree lines on indoor concentrations of traffic-derived particulate matter
Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Dec 3;47(23):13737-44.

    Exposure to airborne particulate pollution is associated with premature mortality and a range of inflammatory illnesses, linked to toxic components within the particulate matter (PM) assemblage. The effectiveness of trees in reducing urban PM10 concentrations is intensely debated. Modeling studies indicate PM10 reductions from as low as 1% to as high as ~60%. Empirical data, especially at the local scale, are rare. Here, we use conventional PM10 monitoring along with novel, inexpensive magnetic measurements of television screen swabs to measure changes in PM10 concentrations inside a row of roadside houses, after temporarily installing a curbside line of young birch trees. Independently, the two approaches identify >50% reductions in measured PM levels inside those houses screened by the temporary tree line. Electron microscopy analyses show that leafcaptured PM is concentrated in agglomerations around leaf hairs and within the leaf microtopography. Iron-rich, ultrafine, spherical particles, probably combustion-derived, are abundant, form a particular hazard to health, and likely contribute much of the measured magnetic remanences. Leaf magnetic measurements show that PM capture occurs on both the road-proximal and -distal sides of the trees. The efficacy of roadside trees for mitigation of PM health hazard might be seriously underestimated in some current atmospheric models.

    Image
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Sat Sep 22, 2018 11:45 am

Petr75 wrote:2017 Sep 27
Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands
Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Netherlands: A Population-based Case-control Study
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29989551

BACKGROUND:
Recently, there has been increasing evidence that exposure to air pollution is linked to neurodegenerative diseases, but little is known about the association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

CONCLUSIONS:
Based on a large population-based case-control study, we report evidence for the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased susceptibility to ALS. Our findings further support the necessity for regulatory public health interventions to combat air pollution levels and provide additional insight into the potential pathophysiology of ALS.



2018 Sep
Neurology Department , University Hospital Center of Tours, France
Co-occurrence of MS and ALS: a clue in favor of common pathophysiological findings?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30175630

Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are two neurological disorders that seem, theoretically, completely divergent according to epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological, and therapeutic data. However, some reports that have mentioned the occurrence of both conditions within the same patient underpin the suggestion that this co-occurrence might not be random. We report six co-occurrences of ALS and MS cases, focusing on epidemiological and clinical diseases findings. We then compare our cohort to those in the literature. Our cohort was composed of five females and one male. The age of onset for MS ranged from 27 to 54 years with either primary or secondary prominence while all being progressive. Both diseases occurred sequentially in all but one the cases. Concerning ALS, the age of onset ranged from 51 to 60 years and the site of onset was the legs in 5/6 cases. The disease lasted from four to 29 months. Although infrequent, this co-occurrence supports the hypothesis of common, pathophysiological mechanisms between ALS and MS. We discuss some arguments favoring a potential link between both conditions.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Thu Sep 27, 2018 10:21 am

2018 Sep 20
Seoul National University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Pain Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Republic of Korea
Ambient air pollution exposure and risk of migraine: Synergistic effect with high temperature.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30245361

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Migraine is a chronic and agonizing neurological disorder prevalent worldwide. Although its pathogenesis remains unclear, limited evidence exists on the role of air pollution.
OBJECTIVE:
We aimed to assess the association of short-term air pollution exposure with migraine in conjunction with the synergistic effect of temperature.
METHODS:
We identified 18,921 patients who visited emergency departments (EDs) for migraine as a primary disease in Seoul from the national emergency database between 2008 and 2014. We conducted a time-stratified, case-crossover analysis to compare levels of particles <2.5 μm (PM2.5), particles <10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) on ED visit days and those on the control days matched to day of the week, month, and year. We evaluated the synergistic effects of air pollution and temperature using an interaction term.
RESULTS:
Higher air pollution levels were significantly associated with risk of migraine over various lag structures. In the best fitting lags, the odds ratio (OR) associated with an interquartile range increase of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3, and CO was 1.031 (95% CI: 1.010-1.053), 1.032 (95% CI: 1.007-1.057), 1.053 (95% CI: 1.022-1.085), 1.034 (95% CI: 1.001-1.067), and 1.029 (95% CI: 1.005-1.053), respectively. The SO2 effect was positive but not significant (OR 1.019 [95% CI: 0.991-1.047]). The PM effect was significantly stronger on high-temperature days (above the 75th percentile) than on low-temperature days (PM2.5, high: OR 1.068, low: OR 1.021, Pinteract = 0.03; PM10, high: OR 1.066, low: OR 1.014, Pinteract = 0.02).
CONCLUSION:
Our study provides new evidence that air pollution exposure may trigger migraine especially on high-temperature days
, and this finding may contribute in establishing preventive measures against migraine.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Sat Nov 10, 2018 10:20 am

2018 Oct 30
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Early life exposure to particulate matter air pollution (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) and autism in Shanghai, China: A case-control study
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30409451

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The evidence for adverse effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on mental health is limited. Studies in Western countries suggested higher risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) associated with PM air pollution, but no such study has been done in developing countries.

CONCLUSIONS:
Exposures to PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 during the first three years of life were associated with the increased risk of ASD and there appeared to be stronger effects of ambient PM pollution on ASD in the second and the third years after birth.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Mon Nov 12, 2018 4:46 am

2018 Nov 8
Epidemiology of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases Department, IPLESP, Medical School Saint-Antoine, Sorbonne Université and INSERM, Paris, France
Long-Term Effect of Outdoor Air Pollution on Mortality and Morbidity: A 12-Year Follow-Up Study for Metropolitan France
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30412999

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Short-term effects of air pollution are documented more than long-term effects.
OBJECTIVE:
We investigated 12-year impacts of ambient air pollutants on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality at the departmental level in metropolitan France.
METHODS:
Daily air pollution data at 2-km resolution, including concentrations of particulate matter of 10 µm or 2.5 µm in diameter or less (PM10 and PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and ozone (O₃), were accrued from the CHIMERE database for 1999 and 2000. Simultaneously, morbidity (hospitalizations) and mortality data were collected in 2012 using the ESPS (Enquête Santé et Protection Sociale/Health, Health Care and Insurance Survey) survey data and the CepiDc (Centre d'Épidémiologie sur les Causes Médicales de Décès/French Epidemiology Centre on Medical Causes of Death) database. Based on Poisson regression analyses, the long-term effect was estimated. A higher risk of all-cause mortality was observed using CépiDc database, with a relative risk of 1.024 (95% CI: 1.022, 1.026) and 1.029 (95% CI: 1.027, 1.031) for a 10 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases likewise exhibited long-term associations with both PM2.5 and PM10. Using ESPS survey data, a significant risk was observed for both PM2.5 and PM10 in all-cause mortality and all-cause morbidity. Although a risk for higher all-cause mortality and morbidity was also present for NO₂, the cause-specific relative risk due to NO₂ was found to be lesser, as compared to PM. Nevertheless, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity were related to NO₂, along with PM2.5 and PM10. However, the health effect of O₃ was seen to be substantially lower in comparison to the other pollutants.
CONCLUSION:
Our study confirmed that PM has a long-term impact on mortality and morbidity. Exposure to NO₂ and O₃ could also lead to increased health risks.
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Re: PM10

Postby Petr75 » Wed Nov 14, 2018 12:40 pm

2018 Zář 27

1 Division of Child Neurology Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia Pennsylvania.
2 University of California San Francisco San Francisco California.
3 University of Utah Salt Lake City Utah.
4 Stony Brook University Stony Brook New York.
5 Buffalo General Hospital State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo New York.
6 Loma Linda University Children's Hospital Loma Linda California.
7 Mayo Clinic Rochester Minnesota.
8 University of Alabama Tuscaloosa Alabama.
9 New York University Medical Center New York New York.
10 Boston Children's Pediatric MS Center Boston Massachusetts.
11Cleveland Clinic Cleveland Ohio.
12 Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis Missouri.
13 Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston Massachusetts.
14 Denver Children's Hospital Denver Colorado.
15 Texas Children's Hospital Houston Texas.
16 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas Texas.
17 Children's National Medical Center Washington District of Columbia.
18 Lurie Children's Hospital Chicago Illinois.

Urban air quality and associations with pediatric multiple sclerosis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30349849

Abstract
Background:
We previously identified air quality as a risk factor of interest for pediatric multiple sclerosis. The purpose of this study is to more closely examine the association between the six criteria air pollutants and pediatric MS as well as identify specific areas of toxic release using data from the Toxic Release Inventory.
Methods:
Pediatric MS cases (N = 290) and healthy controls (N = 442) were included as part of an ongoing case-control study. We used the National Emissions Inventory system to estimate particulate exposure by county of residence for each participant. Proximity to Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) sites was also assessed using ArcGIS mapping tools. Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) classified counties at risk to exposure of environmental toxic releases.
Results:
Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), and lead air emissions were associated with increased odds for pediatric MS (P < 0.01) for those residing within 20 miles of an MS center. Most study participants (75%) resided within 5 miles of at least one TRI site; however, the mean total pounds of stack air releases was higher for sites near MS cases (81,000 tons) compared to those near healthy controls (35,000 tons, P = 0.002). Average RSEI scores did not differ significantly between cases and controls.
Conclusion:
Out of several air pollutants examined, we show that fine particulate matter and three other criteria pollutants (SO 2, CO, and lead) were statistically associated with higher odds for pediatric MS.


PMC https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186930/
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