1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 modulates JAK-STAT pathway in IL-12/IFNgamma axis leading to Th1 response in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.
Muthian G, Raikwar HP, Rajasingh J, Bright JJ.
Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune disease model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Vitamin D deficiency is commonly observed in MS patients and vitamin D supplements reduce the clinical symptoms of EAE and MS. Earlier studies have shown that in vivo treatment with vitamin D analogs ameliorates EAE in association with the inhibition of IL-12 production and Th1 differentiation. The mechanisms in the regulation of Th1 response by vitamin D in EAE/MS are, however, not known. We show that in vivo treatment of C57BL/6 and SJL/J mice (i.p.) with 100 ng of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3, on every other day from Day 0-30, ameliorates EAE in association with the inhibition of IL-12 production and neural antigen-specific Th1 response. In vitro treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited IFNgamma-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, without affecting JAK2, in EOC-20 microglial cells. Treatment of activated T cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the IL-12-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2, TYK2, STAT3, and STAT4 in association with a decrease in T cell proliferation in vitro. These findings highlight the fact that vitamin D modulates JAK-STAT signaling pathway in IL-12/IFNgamma axis leading to Th1 differentiation and further suggest its use in the treatment of MS and other Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 16547967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Journal of Neuroscience Research May 06
IL-10 signaling is essential for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Spach KM, Nashold FE, Dittel BN, Hayes CE.
Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) results from an aberrant, neuroantigen-specific, T cell-mediated autoimmune response. Because MS prevalence and severity decrease sharply with increasing sunlight exposure, and sunlight supports vitamin D(3) synthesis, we proposed that vitamin D(3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) may protect against MS. In support of this hypothesis, 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) strongly inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This inhibition required lymphocytes other than the encephalitogenic T cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) might inhibit EAE through the action of IL-10-producing regulatory lymphocytes. We report that vitamin D(3) and 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) strongly inhibited myelin oligodendrocyte peptide (MOG(35-55))-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice, but completely failed to inhibit EAE in mice with a disrupted IL-10 or IL-10R gene. Thus, a functional IL-10-IL-10R pathway was essential for 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) to inhibit EAE. The 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) also failed to inhibit EAE in reciprocal, mixed bone marrow chimeras constructed by transferring IL-10-deficient bone marrow into irradiated wild-type mice and vice versa. Thus, 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may be enhancing an anti-inflammatory loop involving hemopoietic cell-produced IL-10 acting on brain parenchymal cells and vice versa. If this interpretation is correct, and humans have a similar bidirectional IL-10-dependent loop, then an IL-10-IL-10R pathway defect could abrogate the anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective functions of sunlight and vitamin D(3). In this way, a genetic IL-10-IL-10R pathway defect could interact with an environmental risk factor, vitamin D(3) insufficiency, to increase MS risk and severity.
PMID: 17056528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Journal of Immunology November 06
Not sure Vit D belongs in "Natural Approach" anymore