The how and why part of it. MMP-9s cut hole in BBB and cut Myelin up ito little pieces.
(fig 2 page 505)
1: Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Nov;24(11):1167-71.Links
Resveratrol inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 transcription in U937 cells.Li YT, Shen F, Liu BH, Cheng GF.
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.
AIM: To examine the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on matrix metalloroteinase-9 (MMP-9) and explore its mechanism. METHODS: MMP-9 activity was analyzed by gelatin zymography; MMP-9 protein was detected by Western blot; MMP-9 mRNA expression was investigated by RT-PCR. Activation of activator protein -1 (AP-1) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). RESULTS: MMP-9 activity in U937 cells increased significantly after exposed to PMA at 10 nmol/L for 24 h without FCS (P<0.01). Resveratrol at 1 and 10 micromol/L showed significant inhibition on MMP-9 activity (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Western blot and RT-PCR experiments displayed that MMP-9 protein (P<0.01) and mRNA expression (P<0.01) increased significantly in PMA-treated U937 cells. Resveratrol at 1 and 10 micromol/L showed inhibitory effects on MMP-9 protein production and MMP-9 mRNA expression (P<0.05). The activation of AP-1 induced by PMA was also extensively inhibited by resveratrol at 0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L.
CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on MMP-9 activity may be partly through suppression of activation of nuclear transcription factor AP-1, and inhibition of MMP-9 mRNA expression and MMP-9 protein production.
PMID: 14627504 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Since lots of MS folks think that taking "Grape Seed Extract" is good and I feel the opposite I will provide my reason for having my opinion.
IF and ONLY if we accept that increasing GAMMA INTERFERON is BAD for MS folks will my argument prove sound.
I would hope that everyone can accept this as a fact.
Some Gamma Interferon at low levels is necessary for good health and myelin repair.
The medical literature shows that ADDING/INCREASING Gamma Interferon has worsened MS folks in clinical studies.
The problem with GRAPE SEED EXTRACT is it RAISES ---*** GAMMA INTERFERON *** ```!!!!! (see abstract below)
: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002 Mar;9(2):470-6
Grape seed extract activates Th1 cells in vitro.
Nair N, Mahajan S, Chawda R, Kandaswami C, Shanahan TC, Schwartz SA.
Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo and Kaleida Health, 14203, USA.
Although flavonoids manifest a diverse range of biological activities, including antitumor and antiviral effects, the molecular mechanisms underlying these activities await elucidation. We hypothesize that the flavonoid constituents of a proprietary grape seed extract (GSE) that contains procyandins exert significant antiviral and antitumor effects, by inducing production of the Th1-derived cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from healthy donors. Our results show that GSE significantly induced the transcription of IFN-gamma mRNA as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR but had no effect on the Th2-derived cytokine interleukin-6. The enhancing effect of GSE on IFN-gamma expression was further supported by a concomitant increase in the number of cells with intracytoplasmic IFN-gamma as well as the synthesis and secretion of IFN-gamma.
Our results demonstrate that the potentially beneficial immunostimulatory effects of GSE may be mediated through the induction of IFN-gamma.
PMID: 11874895 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE