I totally agree with separating causal relationships and absolutes, however in postulating a theory it is necessary to assume certain relationships as fact without proof.
Please sir, can I go now? my brain's full...
I was rather referring to their separation in the context of cognitive dysfunction and MS. It would be my contention that they are both affected.
Is intelligence more amenable to repair through plasticity than cognition? Particularly with respect to memory. Memory implies storage within a region. Processing can be distributed across many non-specific regions.
Science. 1988 Oct 7;242(4875):69-71. Related Articles, Links
Distinct cloned class II MHC DNA binding proteins recognize the X box transcription element.
Liou HC, Boothby MR, Glimcher LH.
Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.
The class II (Ia) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens are a family of integral membrane proteins whose expression is limited to certain cell types. A pair of consensus sequences, X and Y, is found upstream of all class II genes, and deletion of each of these sequences eliminates expression of transfected genes. Furthermore, the absence of a specific X box binding protein in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease whose cells lack class II suggests an important role for these proteins in class II regulation. Here, the cloning of two lambda gt11 complementary DNAs encoding DNA binding proteins (murine X box binding proteins lambda mXBP and lambda mXBP-2) is reported. Both phage-encoded fusion proteins bind specifically to the X box of the A alpha, but not to E alpha or E beta class II genes. These two independent isolates do not cross-hybridize. The lambda mXBP complementary DNA hybridizes to two RNA species, 6.2 and 3.0 kilobases in mouse, that are expressed in both Ia positive and Ia negative cells. By means of DNA blot analysis with the lambda mXBP complementary DNA insert and probes generated from each end of this complementary DNA insert, lambda mXBP was found to arise from a multigene family. These data illustrate the high degree of complexity in the transcriptional control of this coordinately regulated gene family.
PMID: 3140376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Neuroimmunol. 1988 Jan;17(2):89-101. Related Articles, Links
Norepinephrine inhibits gamma-interferon-induced MHC class II (Ia) antigen expression on cultured brain astrocytes.
Frohman EM, Vayuvegula B, van den Noort S, Gupta S.
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, California College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine 92717.
Recent evidence that astrocytes can be induced to express the class II major histocompatability (MHC) antigens suggests that these cells may be involved in the development of intracerebral immune responses. The principal inducer of MHC class II antigen (Ia) expression is a soluble lymphokine, gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN). Normally astrocytes do not express significant levels of Ia antigens despite the fact that agents such as gamma-IFN may be present in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report that a major neurotransmitter, norepinephrine (NE), inhibits, in a dose-response fashion, the ability of gamma-IFN to induce Ia antigen expression on cultured astrocytes derived from newborn BALB/c mice. This finding may indicate that the brain contains inhibitory modulators that serve to prevent the up-regulation of intracerebral immune responsiveness.
PMID: 2826540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
That demyelination is necessarily an initial event may be another dogma we need to deal with.
J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Oct;155(1-2):13-20. Related Articles, Links
Inhibition of MMP-dependent chemotaxis and amelioration of experimental autoimmune uveitis with a selective metalloproteinase-2 and -9 inhibitor.
El-Shabrawi Y, Walch A, Hermann J, Egger G, Foster CS.
Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University, Graz, Austria. firstname.lastname@example.org
The chemotaxis of inflammatory cells depends on proteolytic disruption of extracellular matrix components. The metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 enable T-lymphocytes to pass through basement membranes. Selective inhibition of only MMP-2 and -9 almost completely abolished the ability of lymphocytes to digest collagen. The chemotaxis of lymphocytes was reduced 40%. In our in-vivo model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), 46% of the animals in the treated group remained disease-free, whereas all animals in the control group developed EAU. The mean activity of the disease was also statistically significantly reduced. The data suggest that selective MMP-2 and -9 inhibition might be a treatment option. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.
PMID: 15342192 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Anticancer Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;24(4):2309-18. Related Articles, Links
Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 status in relation to apoptosis, p53 expression and leucocyte infiltration in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Shao JY, Ernberg I, Biberfeld P, Heiden T, Zeng YX, Hu LF.
Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV-encoded LMP1, expressed in most of NPC, has been suggested to have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of NPC and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven NPC biopsies were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of markers of cell proliferation, apoptosis, infiltrating T lymphocytes and macrophages in relation to the LMP1 status. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that the p53 accumulation in NPC was significantly correlated to LMP1 and MMP9 overexpression in NPC cells. The frequency of apoptotic cells in NPC, as analyzed by TUNEL labeling, correlated to Fas-L and caspase-3 expression, and inversely to LMP1, p53 and MMP 9 expression. CD8+ T cell infiltration was predominately seen in nests of cancer cells with a high level of EBV-LMP1 expression, but these CD8+ T cells showed low expression of CD25 and TIA-1, indicating that they were not activated. CONCLUSION: Our observation suggests that the heavy infiltration by lymphocytes in LMP1-positive NPC tumors does not appear to counteract tumor growth by cytoxicity as indicated by the low apoptotic index. Thus, LMP1 seems to enhance survival- and proliferation-related signals in NPC. In analogy with other tumors, both the infiltrating T cells and the accumulated p53 may be inactive.
PMID: 15330177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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