Some, but not all, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (indomethacin and ibuprofen in particular) also have activating effects on PPARgamma. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest on the one hand a role for PPARgamma-activating drugs in the treatment of chronic neuroinflammatory diseases-as shown for a patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis by Pershadsingh et al.
We have developed quantitative in vitro assays for measuring neurotoxicity of microglia or other mononuclear phagocytes. Neuronal like SH-SY5Y cells are cultured in supernatants from activated cells of the human monocytic THP-1 line and their survival is followed. Respiratory burst is directly measured on the activated cells. We tested inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase (COX) or the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathways as possible neuroprotective agents. The COX pathway generates inflammatory prostaglandins, while the 5-LOX pathway generates inflammatory leukotrienes. We found that inhibitors of both these pathways suppressed neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent fashion. They included the COX-1 inhibitor indomethacin; the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398; the mixed COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor ibuprofen; the nitric oxide (NO) derivatives of indomethacin, ibuprofen and flurbiprofen; the 5-LOX inhibitor REV 5901; and the 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor MK-886. The FLAP inhibitor also reduced respiratory burst activity in a more potent manner than indomethacin. Combinations of COX and 5-LOX inhibitors were more effective than single inhibitors. The data suggest that both COX inhibitors and 5-LOX inhibitors may be neuroprotective in vivo by suppressing toxic actions of microglia/macrophages, and that combinations of the two might have greater therapeutic potential than single inhibitors of either class
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