horsechestnut seems to have arrested my left leg tingles:
1: Biol Pharm Bull. 1997 Oct;20(10):1092-5.Linkslink
Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., on acute inflammation in animals.Matsuda H, Li Y, Murakami T, Ninomiya K, Yamahara J, Yoshikawa M.
Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Japan.
We investigated the effects of escins Ia, Ib, and IIb isolated from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., and desacylescins I and II obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of escins on acute inflammation in animals (p.o.). Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of vascular permeability induced by both acetic acid in mice and histamine in rats. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) also inhibited that induced by serotonin in rats, but escin Ia didn't. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (200 mg/kg) inhibited the hind paw edema induced by carrageenin at the first phase in rats. Escin Ia (200 mg/kg) and escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the scratching behavior induced by compound 48/80 in mice, but escin Ia was weakest. Desacylescins I and II (200 mg/kg) showed no effect. With regard to the relationship between their chemical structures and activities, the acyl groups in escins were essential. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb with either the 21-angeloyl group or the 2'-O-xylopyranosyl moiety showed more potent activities than escin Ia which had both the 21-tigloyl group and the 2'-O-glucopyranosyl moiety.
PMID: 9353571 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1: Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Nov 14;315(2):227-33. Linkslink
Effect of aescine on hypoxia-induced activation of human endothelial cells.Arnould T, Janssens D, Michiels C, Remacle J.
Laboratoire de Biochimie Cellulaire, Facultés Universitaires Notre dame de la Paix, Namur, Belgium.
Phlebotonic drugs are very often old drugs which improve symptoms in chronic venous insufficiency but their precise mechanism remains unclear. One reason for this lack of information is our poor understanding of the aetiology of the varicose vein. One hypothesis which is being more and more substantiated is that the origin of the disease lies in the activation of the endothelium during blood stasis, leading to a cascade of reactions which, in the long term, alter the structure of the vein wall. In this work, we tested aescine (Reparil i.v. form), a phlebotonic drug, in an in vitro model which mimics this situation, i.e. human endothelial cells exposed to hypoxic conditions. Aescine was shown to inhibit 2 important steps of the activation of endothelial cells incubated 120 min under hypoxia the decrease in ATP content, which is the starting point of the activation cascade, and the increase in the activity of phospholipase A2, an enzyme responsible for the release of precursors of inflammatory mediators. Hypoxia-activated endothelial cells also increase their adhesiveness for neutrophils. This process could also be prevented in a dose-dependent manner if endothelial cells were incubated in the presence of aescine. This inhibition was confirmed by morphological observations in scanning electron microscopy. All 3 effects were already evidenced at 100 ng/ml and were maximal at 750 ng/ml. These effects obtained at very low concentrations probably represent one of the main molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie, among others, protection of the vessel wall. Objective criteria for our understanding of the preventive action of this phlebotonic drug are, thus, provided.
PMID: 8960888 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1: Arzneimittelforschung. 1994 Jan;44(1):25-35.Linkslink
Veinotonic effect, vascular protection, antiinflammatory and free radical scavenging properties of horse chestnut extract.Guillaume M, Padioleau F.
Lipha Group, Department of Pharmacology, Suresnes, France.
Horse chestnut extract (HCE), containing 70% escin, is the main active component of Veinotonyl 75. The aim of this work was to investigate pharmacological properties attempting to elucidate the efficacy of HCE in chronic venous insufficiency. Veinotonic and lymphagogue properties: HCE dose dependently contracts the canine saphenous isolated vein (cumulative doses 5 x 10(-8) to 5 x 10(-4) g/ml). Its action lasts more than 5 h. In the perfused canine saphenous vein, HCE (25-50 mg in bolus) increases the venous pressure of the normal vein and the pathological vein stenosed 8 days before, and the contractile response to noradrenaline is significantly potentiated. Moreover, during the perfusion in inverse direction of the blood stream, a clear contracting effect on the valves is also obtained with HCE. In the anaesthetized dog, HCE in situ improves the femoral vein compliance and opposes the venous distension obtained during clamping in a carotido-femoral perfusion with constant flow. In other respects, HCE significantly increases femoral venous pressure and flow, together with thoracic lymphatic flow, while respecting the arterial parameters (2.5 and 5 mg/kg i.v.). Vasculotropic action: HCE dose dependently diminishes the cutaneous capillary hyperpermeability induced either by injections of phlogistic agents as histamine and serotonin in the rat (100 to 400 mg/kg p.o.), or by an irritative agent (chloroform) application in the rabbit (50 to 300 mg/kg p.o. and 2.5 to 5 mg/kg i.v.). It significantly increases the vascular resistance in the guinea pig fed a scorbutigenic diet as measured by the petechia method (50 to 400 mg/kg p.o.). Antiedema and antiinflammatory properties: HCE decreases the formation of edemas induced in the rat's hind paw, one of lymphatic origin, the other of inflammatory origin (200 to 400 mg/kg p.o.). In an experimental model of pleurisy in the rat HCE suppresses plasmatic extravasation and leucocytes emigration into the pleural cavity (200 to 400 mg/kg p.o.; 1 to 10 mg/kg i.v.). It decreases the connective tissue formation in the subchronic model of inflammatory granuloma in the rat (400 mg/kg p.o. and 5-10 mg/kg s.c.). Antiradical mechanism of action both in vitro and in vivo: HCE dose dependently inhibits both enzymatic and non-enzymatic in vitro lipid peroxidation (5 x 10(-6) to 5 x 10(-4) g/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
PMID: 8135874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]