hey there i was looking for something else entirely and ran across this:
Many theories have been put forward to explain the mechanism of stone formation and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the urinary, serum and stone levels of zinc, iron, magnesium, and copper in patients with calcium oxalate stones and to investigate urinary and serum element levels in healthy controls and to find a possible connection between the elements and calcium oxalate stone formation. A total of 104 patients with calcium oxalate stones ranging in age from 3 to 79 years (mean 44.0 ± 18.1) and 77 healthy controls ranging in age from 18 to 77 (mean 44.2 ± 17.9) were included in this study. The mean urinary iron and copper levels in stone patients were significantly higher than healthy controls (P = 0.000). The mean urinary zinc and magnesium levels in healthy controls were significantly higher than stone patients (P = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of magnesium and copper in stone patients and healthy controls. Serum zinc and iron level were significantly high in healthy controls as compared to stone patients
. Each stone had all 4 elements. Zn and Mg have inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate stone formation
. Fe and Cu could be promotor of the calcium oxalate stone formation.
from the full text
Serum Zn and Fe levels were significantly
high in healthy controls (3.15 ± 3.4 and 13.5 ± 7.8 ppm) as compared to stone patients
(0.89 ± 0.9 and 8.93 ± 9.9 ppm) (P < 0.001).
unfortunately i do not have the know-how to do a units conversion on ppm serum zinc, micromol/L!