More than 99 per cent of people with multiple sclerosis have been infected with Epstein-Barr virus during their lifetime but those who contract the virus in the first few years of life, such as children in developing countries where the virus is endemic, show no symptoms.
Those who contract the virus in their teens or early 20s, as in most Western countries, usually develop glandular fever, or infectious mononucleosis, and suffer from extreme fatigue, muscle aches, headaches, throat inflammation and weight loss. Research has shown those people are more likely to go on to develop multiple sclerosis later in life.
The study involved 135 consecutive patients diagnosed with MS at the Multiple Sclerosis Center of the University of Trieste. Evaluations of the MRI scans were carried out at the University of Trieste and at the JNI's Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (BNAC), which Zivadinov directs.
The Buffalo researchers measured total brain volume, as well as the decrease in grey matter, at baseline and three years later.
Results showed that higher levels of anti-EBV antibody measured at the beginning of the study were associated with an increased loss of grey matter and total brain volume over the three-year follow-up.
Since 95% of adults have been infected with EBV, most adults will show antibodies to EBV from infection years earlier. High or elevated antibody levels may be present for years and are not diagnostic of recent infection.
. J. Trace Elem. Exp. Med. 10:191-196, 1997.[/quote]...Plasma erythrocyte (RBC) and hair zinc (Zn) levels were measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometers in 40 untreated children with Hodgkin's disease (HD). The great majority of the patients belonged to low and average socioeconomic status. The mean blood and hair Zn values in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively). Some of the T-cell functions, particularly CD4 cells, were found to be diminished... The present data support our earlier hypothesis that preexisting Zn deficiency due to nutritional environment may prepare a milieu favoring development of malignant lymphoma by suppression of T-cell immunity. In addition, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) was found to be associated with pediatric HD at serological and molecular levels
Journal of Nutrition. 2000;130:1399S-1406S
The Dynamic Link between the Integrity of the Immune System and Zinc Status
Pamela J. Fraker3, Louis E. King, Tonya Laakko and Teresa L. Vollmer
The results of more than three decades of work indicate that zinc deficiency rapidly diminishes antibody- and cell-mediated responses in both humans and animals. The moderate deficiencies in zinc noted in sickle cell anemia, renal disease, chronic gastrointestinal disorders and acrodermatitis enteropathica; subjects with human immunodeficiency virus; children with diarrhea; and elderly persons can greatly alter host defense systems, leading to increases in opportunistic infections and mortality rates. Conversely, short periods of zinc supplementation substantially improve immune defense in individuals with these diseases. Mouse models demonstrate that 30 d of suboptimal intake of zinc can lead to 30–80% losses in defense capacity. Collectively, the data clearly demonstrate that immune integrity is tightly linked to zinc status. Lymphopenia and thymic atrophy, which were the early hallmarks of zinc deficiency, are now known to be due to high losses of precursor T and B cells in the bone marrow. This ultimately leads to lymphopenia or a failure to replenish the lymphocytic system. Glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis induced by zinc deficiency causes down-regulation of lymphopoiesis. Indeed, zinc itself can modulate death processes in precursor lymphocytes. Finally, there is substantial evidence that zinc supplementation may well reduce the impact of many of the aforementioned diseases by preventing the dismantling of the immune system. The latter represents an important area for research.
I am not sure...It was a general and when I woke up I wasn't able to breathe properly so god knows how long I was like that for. Also they had given me an epidural (whilst under a GA!) and that didn't wear off for 3/4 days. I was never the same after this op, it triggered all my health probs
The report is the first to estimate the number of U.S. hospital patients at risk for VTE (venous thromboembolism), Anderson said. Risk was estimated using criteria set by the American College of Chest Physicians. According to those guidelines, risk factors include a hospital stay of two days or more, the presence of severe medical or surgical conditions, older age and any operation involving general anesthesia.
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