Antipsychotics / Neuroleptics For Mental Disorders- Comments

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Why Non-medicational Interpersonal Or (And) Impersonal Emoti

Postby eowc » Sat Jul 17, 2010 2:03 am

Why Non-medicational Interpersonal Or (And) Impersonal Emotional Comforts, Reliefs, Supports etc Are So Essential As A Part of The Holistic Approach For Mental Disorders ?




Well, I have suggested in my previous posts about the following as the holistic approach for mental disorders :


1/3 of medicational helps + 1/3 of psychotherapies, interactive, interpersonal, emotional, communication, conselling supports from the others + 1/3 of self-determinations, self-initiatives, self-controls, self-wills and self-disciplines to think positively, rationally, realistically and practically as well as to lead a normal and healthy life ;


As such, I would like to emphasize once again that the non-medicational emotional comforts, reliefs, supports etc either in interpersonal or impersonal forms (and a combination of both depending on different mental conditions of different mentally-ill people), are in fact, very essential and indispensable in enabling the ones troubled with mental disorders to make real, genuine, long-lasting and sustainable improvements for their mental conditions towards the path of full recoveries in the end.


Well, based on what I have learnt so far from the psychologists is that, everyone of us naturally are born with the innate urges to get upset, angry and even mad especially when we face certain surroundings, incidences, people that are considered unpleasant to us.


Next, in terms of normal people who are not troubled by any mental illnesses, they normally have the mental abilities derived from their sensible minds and sanities to at least try to resist and overcome such urges to get upset, angry, mad etc whenever they feel like doing so by trying on their very own to calm themselves down.


Whilst in terms of the ones troubled with mental disorders, well, given that their mind powers are weaker, they thus have lesser abilities to do so, and hence would tend to more easily get upset, angry, mad etc at things that are considered to be unpleasant to them.


As a matter of fact, in terms of psychological reasoning, the mental abilities of the normal healthy mentally-sound people to at least try to resist such urges to get upset, angry, mad etc, such as what I have mentioned above, well, such mental abilities actually come from the "calming forces" nurtured, developed and accumulated into their respective minds on an ongoing way, normally and spontaneously without even them noticing it, through such events, incidences, activities, surroundings, people etc in their everyday life that would naturally make them feel happy, joyous, serene etc.


Whilst for the ones troubled with mental disorders, since they do not have enough / are very much lacking in such "calming forces" in their conscious / subconscious minds, they thus face certain difficulties in trying to control their moods and mental conditions in the effective ways like the normal healthy people who are mentally sound.


For example, given a distressing incidence, different people would tend to react differently to it. Whilst the persons who are mentally sound could just at least try their best not to get upset too easily by such an unpleasant incidence, the ones troubled with mental diorders such as depression etc, may just turn out to be emotionally weaker and could not resist the urges to get depressed etc. In short, there are just not enough "calming forces" in their own minds to enable them to resist such urges to do so.


As such, non-medicational emotional comforts and reliefs are thus very important and essential in nurturing, developing and accumulating such "calming forces" in the minds of the ones troubled with mental disorders in such a way that when they have gathered enough and sufficient "calming forces" in their own minds, they would then be able to consciously stabilize their mental conditions and exercise certain self-controls on their own so as to at least try to resist the urges and refrain themselves to get upset, angry, mad at others etc especially when facing certain unpleasant incidences.


Besides, in terms of general cognitive behavioural process of Perceptions (anything we see, we hear, we know, we taste, we touch etc from our surroundings / other people) => Feelings (the way we feel about our surroundings and other people based on anything we see, hear, know, taste, touch etc) => Thoughts (the types of views and opinions that we form in our minds based on the types of feelings we have for anything we perceive) => Actions (how we choose to react in response to those surroundings / other people based on the feelings and thoughts that arise in our minds),


psychologically, the entire process can actually be explained in such a way that when the particular surroundings, environments, people's behaviours / attitudes etc (Perceptions) just through some effectively positive means / efforts of non-medicational emotional comforts / reliefs etc, appear to be pleasant, peaceful and friendly to certain people troubled with mental disorders, they would thus get to become calmer and calmer in a natural way in the long-run especially when they are continually exposed to such pleasant surroundings, environments, people's friendly behaviours / attitudes etc on a permanently ongoing basis (Feeling), and when such "calming forces" are accumulated sufficiently in their very own minds, this would then enable them to at least try to resist any thoughts / urges to feel upset, angry, mad etc at certain incidences, especially the ones that they have never expected and that are considered unpleasant to them (Thoughts). Finally and ideally, such an ongoing scenario would thus result in gradually step by step improvements in their mental conditions especially in terms of positive behavioural changes for the better and better conditions (Actions).


Similarly, the same explanations would apply as well to other scenarios that anyone, including the ones who are mentally-sound, face in their everyday life.


For instance, when the mentally-sound healthy persons are exposed, especially unwillingly to certain hostile, harsh and unfriendly surroundings / environments / people (Perceptions) for a certain long period of time, and no matter how tolerant they may initially get to be, they may just lose their patience at one particular point of time in that they might couldn't help themselves but to feel annoyed, angry, upset, mad etc in the end (Feelings). Next, the accumulated calming forces they possess would then start depleting gradually initially, and then substantially as times go by, in that they may just start forming negative thoughts about the hostile, harsh and unfriendly surroundings / environments / people they face in their everyday life, even without them noticing such a change in the negative ways they think (Thoughts). In the end, such thoughts may just give rise to certain negative behavioural changes in them by becoming enervative / dejected, acting angrily, furiously etc (Actions).


And, let me just give you all one example, and please bear in mind that it is just for references purpose only. Well, I have dealt with a patient having such a symptom that he couldn't help himself at all but simply has the irresistable urges to appear himself to be violently mad to others (without any intentions to harm anyone at all) whenever he talks to any other people. Whilst such urges in him to automatically get "mad" at others when talking to them, have just become so overwhelming and involuntarily uncontrollable that it has become habitual, even beyond his very own free wills, subconsciousness and consciousness in that, he simply could not realize what he is doing when he unintentionally get mad at the others. In short, his sensibilities, mind powers, self-wills and sanities largely could not overcome and resist such urges at such a stage.


And upon knowing that the particular patient likes to gaze at the sea during sunset and having observed that the patient's mood tends to get better whenever and after he does so, I would, without the patient knowing anything, make the arrangements accordingly for the particular patient to get to the seaside to gaze at the sea during sunset as frequently as possible so let he could get naturally calmer and calmer as time goes by.


Next, when the particular patient is confident and comfortable enough to relate to other people, and is able to summon enough courages to confide in me, I would then request that patient to take me along to his favourite seaside to admire both the beautiful surroundings of the seaside and the marvellous views of the sunset.


Subsequently, I will try my best to talk about anything in inductive, subtle, indirect, subliminal and friendly communicational manners that are acceptable to him and could make him feel happy, joyous, serene, confident and sensible just like his good friend (from his very own perspective), rather than as a social worker trying to improve his mental conditions or to cure him.


All in all, my very purpose of doing so is primarily, and indirectly without him knowing anything at all (so as to avoid any unnecessary stress that may potentially arise on his part), to cultivate and nurture bit by bit such "calming forces" into his mind in such a way that when such "calming forces" are accumulated sufficiently in him, that would give him the very ability to be conscious and mentally stronger enough to at least to try to resist such urges to get mad automatically at the others without him being totally unable to resist such urges at all.


In addition, such a way of indirect counselling would actually serve to indirectly induce, inspire and encourage the ones troubled with mental disorders to gradually step-by-step, think positively, sensibly and rationally on their very own in such a way that they could slowly and on an ongoing basis, regain their consciousness and sanities bit by bit from time to time.


Besides, in terms of the principles of general cognitive behavioral process of Perceptions => Feelings => Thoughts => Actions, this is also the very basic concept that we, as voluntary social workers, apply in figuring out various inductive, subtle, indirect, subliminal and friendly ways and means to effectively help the mentally-ill people troubled with different mental problems of different causes, symptoms and degrees of severities, so as to bring about positive personality changes in them gradually step-by-step.


Apart from that, essentially a great deal of patience, considerations and tolerances would be required especially from the ones who really care about and want to help the persons troubled with mental disorders so as to genuinely improve their mental conditions gradually and slowly step by step towards full recoveries.





Next, for the medications intended for and are particularly very effective in bringing down especially the uncontrollable symptoms of mental disorders, I would like to add that :


Whilst in terms of medications for mental disorders, especially the antipsychotics / neuroleptics for psychosis disorders, well, they invariably would work in such a way that they would artificially intercept with the synaptic activities of the neurotransmitters chemical serotonin, dopamine etc so as to artificially block any negative nerve impulses from getting sent to the brains, and in this way, the related patients would get to calm down and be pacified substantially throughout the effective period of each dosage of such medications. And that's particularly the reason why they are labelled as powerful tranquilizers and mind-altering drugs that work by changing the effects of chemicals in the brain.


Nevertheless, in terms of such drug treatments, since the whole mechanisms are totally artificial and given the fact that the interceptions of the neurotransmitters chemicals and the blockings of negative nerve impulses by the therapeutical / curative effects of such antipsychotics / neuroleptics are actually no different from false / artificially forced suppressions of those nerve impulses, rather than a natural process by themselves, various neurological disorders would thus arise when such powerful antipsychotics / neuroleptics are over-relied upon to the point of sheer abuse in the long-term especially when the normal functionings of neurotransmitters chemicals are disturbed and disrupted in the end. Next, given the fact that the various nervous systems work with our brains to maintain the normal functionings of the human bodies, the brains would then get affected too in the worst case scenario in the end, and that would include structural changes of the brains.


In reality, what would really happen is such that the artificial therapeutical mechanisms of "forced suppressions" of negative nerve impulses and artificial interferences with the synaptic activities of the neurotransmitters, neurons, nervous systems and brains through taking such related medications would actually numbed the cognitive senses of the ones taking them. And that's the main reason why certain people taking such medications, would just appear like a zombie to the others over the effective period of each dosage of the related medications.


And as a matter of fact, all the antipsychotics / neuroleptics and any medications for mental disorders, well, no matter how advanced they are, there is simply no way for such medications to deliver any of the actual healing effects that are equivalent to the interpersonal counselling therapies / emotional supports from the close ones etc, that the mentally-ill people need for further genuine improvements of their mental conditions and their final recoveries in the end.


Besides, given their subsequent potentially disastrous neurological / neuromuscular, and in the worst-case scenario, neuro-degenerative side effects such as Parkinsonism, Dementia, Alzheimers etc which involve damages and losses of brain cells, neurons etc, certain efforts and precautions thus would be necessary to avoid the manifestations of all these undesirable side effects of such medications.


All in all, I am not saying that antipsychotics / neuroleptics and other related medications meant for the treatments of various mental disorders are bad for the ones taking them. Well, such medications, in my opinion, actually work like double-edged swords whereby on one part, they are very effective in bringing the undesirable symptoms of mental disorders under control, whilst the downsides of them are such that their subsequent hazardous neurological / neuromuscular and neuro-degenerative side effects are definitely undesirable for anyone taking them. As such, careful precautions would need to be exercised closely to guard against the eventual manifestations of the hazardously undesirable side effects of such medications for mental disorders.


Besides, In terms of psychological mental disorders which are totally different from other physiological / bodily / somatic / disorders such as heart attacks, diabetes, kidney failures etc, taking such medications for mental disorders are in fact, not the conclusive cure / solution to such disorders.


Next, as a matter of fact, other non-medicational efforts such as what I have mentioned above, should also be put in and taken at the same time to complement all the inadequacies and shortcomings of such medications as well as to achieve a holistic approach for the treatments of various mental disorders.


In short, the non-medicational "calming forces" that could be cultivated, nurtured, developed and accumulated and instilled little by little indirectly into the minds of the ones troubled with mental disorders through such efforts of non-medicational emotional comforts and reliefs are thus essential and indispensable in enabling them to at least be able to try to control their own moods and emotions especially when facing anything unpleasant to them, as well as helping them to achieve genuine, long-lasting and sustainable improvements for their mental conditions towards the path of final recoveries.


In addition, generally and basically, all the non-medicational efforts of psychotherapies, interactive, interpersonal, emotional, communication, conselling supports etc from the others who really care about the ones troubled with mental illnesses, such as what I have mentioned above, are thus very important in building up such "calming forces" in them.


Next, in terms of all such non-medicational efforts to provide emotional comforts, reliefs, supports etc to the ones troubled with mental problems, there are simply no hard and fast / fixed rules / ways for them to be conducted in that such efforts to produce such "calming forces" in them can be flexibly anything positive that are emotionally comfortable and acceptable to the related persons troubled with mental disorders. In short, such non-medicational mental comforts, reliefs, supports etc can come in any forms (either interpersonally or impersonally and a combination of these two efforts depending on the different mental conditions of different people) that appeal / are naturally mentally-comforting to the ones troubled with mental disorders, such as the example mentioned above.


All in all, all these non-medicational efforts that could be interpersonal as well as impersonal or a combination of these two efforts depending on the different mental conditions of different people, they are all directed to the very purpose of giving ongoing emotional comforts, reliefs and supports to the ones troubled with mental disorders so that they could gather and accumulate enough as well as sufficient "calming forces" into their minds to straighten out their thoughts, to clear out the confusions and disturbances troubling their minds, to let they themselves become more and more emotionally stronger and mentally sounder, and most importantly, to enable them make genuine, sustainable, long-lasting improvements for their mental conditions as well as to help them slowly regain their sanities from time to time towards the very goal of their final recoveries from mental disorders.


In short, the entire psychological process can be summarized as follows :


Non-medicational interpersonal or (and) impersonal emotional comforts, reliefs, supports and "calming forces" cultivated, nurtured and accumulated gradually, continually and sufficiently into the minds of the of the ones troubled with mental problems


=> (will bring about)


More and more self-confidences, higher and higher levels of self-consciousnesses and greater and greater sanities that would enable these persons to at least try to calm themselves down, to stabilize their mental conditions on their own, to think lucidly and reasonably and to act / respond rationally to what they deal with in their everyday life.
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Brief Summary of The Prior Posts Above

Postby eowc » Wed Aug 25, 2010 12:46 am

Brief Summary of The Posts Above



Well, objectively the point is that all such medications for mental disorders, including the antipsychotics / neuroleptics are important and extremely much more useful than anything else in serving the primary purpose of bringing down and suppress all the hardly controllable and involuntary symptoms of the mental disorders such as violent emotional outbursts, purposeless abrupt traumatic reactions, various phobia behaviours, miscellaneous involuntary and uncontrollable deep hallucinations / delusions etc. This is the case especially and particularly when no other interpersonal efforts from other persons could achieve such a purpose.



However, when it comes to genuinely treating the mentally-ill people so as to enable their mental conditions and cognitive sanities to get practically and realistically better and better in a permanently sustainable manner from time to time as well as to let them feel more and more confident about themselves, that would be another different story. This is due to the very undisputed fact that all the antipsychotics / neuroleptics and any medications for mental disorders, well, no matter how advanced they are, there is simply no way for such medications to deliver any of the actual healing effects that are equivalent to the interpersonal counselling therapies / emotional supports from the close ones etc, that the mentally-ill people need for further genuine improvements of their mental conditions (so as to enable them so slowly and graudally regain their actual sanities and cognitive / mental abilities from time to time) and their final recoveries in the end. This is mainly due to the fact that when it comes to mental illnesses, no medications would be able to permanently, irreversibly, and particularly, realistically and practically change the mentally psychological, rather than the bodily / metabolism-related physiological aspects of what and how the mentally-ill people would perceive, feel, think about their surroundings, environments and the people they deal with, as well as their resultant actions, reactions, behaviours based on their respective subsequent outcomes of those 3 key factors. Whilst normally, such medications for mental illnesses, with their artificial neurological effects, would merely just serve the purpose of temporarily and mechanically numb the cognitive senses of their users so as to artificially make them "unable to feel and think about anything at all" throughout the effective period of each dosage of such medications. And as such, medications for mental disorders alone would thus not be able to realistically, practically and genuinely enable to get the mentally-ill people totally cured in the end. Hence, other non-medicational efforts as mentioned, explained and elaborated in detail in my prior posts above are thus required and indispensably necessary to enable the mentally-ill people to achieve the realistic, genuine and practical long-term real improvements for their mental conditions and sanities gradually step-by-step towards the path of full recoveries.



All in all, such constructive non-medicational impersonal and (or) interpersonal efforts and emotional supports are very much important in reinforcing and strengthening the confidences, self-wills, determinations and sanities of the mentally-ill people in helping them to recover from their mental illnesses gradually, realistically and sustainably step-by-step.
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Further Follow-up

Postby eowc » Tue Oct 05, 2010 6:15 am

Included below is a conversation between me and the other third party about mental disorders & illnesses, the advantageous, disadvantageous of the medications for such illnesses and disorders as well as how such medications actually work in reality and what purposes they are supposed to serve along with several flaws, defects and demerits of the modern mainstream medical science and system. Next I hope that the information provided will be useful and helpful to the intended readers.



Remarks from the other person :

"Speaking of neurotransmitters, much is made by the medical community about their alleged central role in depression and anxiety. However, this is largely unproven."




My replies :

Well, it's totally undeniable that human bodies depend on the neurological mechanisms of neuron, brains, neuron networks, miscellaneous nervous systems, the many types of neurotransmitters chemical for all our bodily functionings which include cognitive and movement abilities etc. And that's the reason why the people with Parkinsonism, Dementia, Alzheimers etc whose brain cells and neurons have been substantially destroyed (and hence no neurotransmitter chemicals can be released / secreted out of them) could not think, act and behave properly at all.



Remarks from the other person :

"There is, for instance, no lab test that can be done to show that depression or anxiety sufferers do indeed suffer from low serotonin levels. And even if depression and anxiety sufferers indeed DO tend to suffer from low serotonin levels, this does NOT establish a causal relationship between low serotonin and depression/anxiety. Low serotonin may simply be a RESULT of suffering from anxiety disorder. Also, more than likely, serotonin is probably low only in specific parts of the brain (but normal or even above normal in other parts of the brain). All of this certainly explains why globally increasing serotonin levels with drugs like SSRIs typically does not give entirely satisfactory results. "



My replies :

In fact, the drugs like Prozac etc could only temporarily and artificially restore the chemical balance of the brains of the mentally-ill people by re-uptaking and maintaing the proper balance of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter chemicals of their brains. However, since such an artificial medical mechanism is all by way of "forced suppression" so as to artificially blocking any nerve and sensory impulses from getting sent and receive to and from the brains, and hence, artificially blocking the "neuron network traffics" the mental conditions of the related mentally-ill people would then suffer a greater relapse of their mental illnesses when the therapeutical effects of such "forced suppressions" of each dosage of the related medications just lapse completely, while the previously medication-forced- suppressed nerve and sensory impulses would just turn violent and out-of-control (when they are no longer artificially suppressed by medications anymore) and manifest in far worse uncontrollable and involuntary behavioural and personality changes in the related mentally-ill people. Hence, that's why in such cases, the cures are worse than the diseases themselves .



So, that's why I have said that other non-medicational efforts such as what I have mentioned and explained earlier on in my previous posts are primarily important in genuinely and permanently restoring the sanities of the mentally-ill people bit by bit and step by step.


Remarks from the other person :

"As for antipsychotics and dopamine, once again, dopamine levels may be out of balance in people suffering from psychosis. But it is impossible to say whether this is the actual cause. And since, like antidepressants, antipsychotics generally do not produce entirely satisfactory results, I would suspect that there is probably MUCH more to psychosis than a simple chemical imbalance."



My replies :

As a matter of fact, everything has its shortcomings, flaws and defects. For example, in the case of people suffering from Tardive Dyskinesia, Dystonia and other movement disorders due to interruptions and disruptions to the synaptic activities of the neurotransmitter chemical dopamine, well, given that such fluidly and nearly totally transparent neurotransmitter chemical secreted by countless neurons and brain cells are hardly observable and distinguishable by any medical examinations such as MRI, CT-scannings etc whereby the people with Tardive Dyskinesia, Dystonia etc would obviously show their involuntary and uncontrollable movement disorders to the related doctors, nevertheless, no conclusive medical examinations, observations, diagnosis supported by any hard evidences can be given at the same time. So, that's why under such scenarios and phenomena, such movement disorders are labelled as "undiagnosed diseases".



Next, I suffer from Tardive Dyskinesia before and my efforts of seeking the mainstream treatments from the western medical science just turn out to be totally futile such as the scenarios and phenomena explained above. And the fact that my Tardive Dyskinesia movement disorders are totally cured once-and-for-all about 6 years ago through a totally needle-free acupuncture / acupressure technique, which has fully cured countless of people having the same problem as mine so far, and well, the flaw and defect of this acupuncture / acupressure technique is such that, regardless of the ongoing ample empirical evidences about its obviously evident and prompt efficacies, the mainstream western medical science still would not recognise the validity of it simply for the mere reason that the healing mechanisms of such a totally needle-free acupuncture / acupressure technique are not be able to be observed, explored and studied by them, regardless of its obviously evident, prompt and 100 % healing efficacies as supported by more and more countless empirical evidences.



In such a connection, what I wish to say is that for anything that we do not know or have not yet known, it doesn't mean that they are phoney, fallacious or non-existent.



All in all, under any circumstances, I firmly and reasonably believe that for any patients / people seeking treatments for any of their illnesses, especially the desperate ones, I reckon that they would want the best and most effective treatments for themselves under any circumstances and situations. Anyhow, for anyone seeking treatments for their illnesses, their sole and only purpose is to get their illnesses and disorders totally cured, and preferably, once and for all.


Further Details :

http://www.anxietyforum.net/forum/viewt ... highlight=
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Disastrous Side Effects of Certain Hazardous Medications and

Postby eowc » Fri Feb 25, 2011 9:21 pm

Disastrous Side Effects of Certain Hazardous Medications and Medical Care for Tender-aged Children / Kids & Senile and Fragile Old People - An Important Point To Take Note



Well, regarding the various medications for mental disorers, especially the longly-outdated first-generation ones such as chlorpromazine, fluphenazine (Prolixin), haloperidol (Haldol), perphenazine, thioridazine, trifluoperazine (Stelazine) etc, actually one very obvious flaw / defect about the prior and existing drugs / medications approval systems and procedures before and nowadays is such that, for all / most of the drugs / medications, especially the ones with potentially and largely unknown disastrous side effects approved by such accredited medical professional bodies such as FDA etc, whilst in these cases, medications for mental disorders especially the serious psychosis disorders (in contrast to the mild neurosis disorders), the usability and viability of them in most cases, are officially established and endorsed virtually through their repeated testings and experimentations on the voluntarily willing / and in most cases, recruited paid and contract-bound candidates, or rather guinea pigs who are invariably all the fully grown adults, especially the ones with stronger physiques who have been regularly and frequently recruited for and exposed to such drugs / medications testings and experimentations from time to time, and hence naturally such candidates would have reasonably developed and possessed stronger-than-usual immune systems over time compared to other normal healthy people, as well as substantially greater tolerances to the adverse (neurological / neuromuscular / neuro-degenerative) side effects of such tested / experimented drugs and medications, especially after they have gone through so many drugs / medications testings and experimentations.



Hence, regardless of the official positive results produced, verified and announced through the drugs / medications testings and experimentations conducted in such a questionable way, given that there is such an explicit discrepancy in terms of the standards and yardsticks applied by such professional medical organisations in the process of approving such drugs / medications, especially the ones with serious side effects, the usability and viability of the related drugs and medications officially approved as such, are thus reasonably and very much open to questions particularly when they are being prescribed, dispensed, used and taken by the end users whose immune systems are not as great and strong as the drug / medications testings candidates or rather, guinea pigs as described above.



As such, reasonably, regardless of the very undeniable facts that constructive positive changes and improvements to such long-standing rigid practices and procedures which are fraught with many technical drawbacks and discrepancies (and hence, are medically unfavourable to the normal healthy end users) are practically, logistically and realistically unenforceable, infeasible, or rather, nearly impossible due to a variety of unfavourable factors and restrictive limitations that can hardly be overcome, I nevertheless would like to take this opportunity to inspire a greater awareness and emphasize that well-informed, careful and discreet precautions should reasonably be taken by the related end users of the related drugs / medications, especially in line with the topic above, for the sake of medical health cares and well-beings of the small tender-aged kids / children and the senile & fragile old people whose immune systems are either far more less developed or seriously deteriorating in the latter cases (compared to those guinea pigs as described above) , particularly when it comes to taking any medications with any potentially disastrous side effects so as to prevent the eventual unwanted, undesirable, and quite often, unexpected manifestations of such disastrous side effects of the related drugs / medications.


Related Information :

Examples of First-generation antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia :


http://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/firs ... izophrenia



In such a connection, please refer to the website as follows for some overviews of all these first, second and third-generation antipsychotics.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antipsychotics
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