MMP-9s cut a hole in your BBB Blood Brain Barrier enter your brain along with lots of hungry folks who wait for them to cut the myelin into the three components they like to dine on. Real NASTY stuff!!
Just before a MS ATTACK MMP-9 levels rise and during attack they stay high.
Normally MMP-9s are regulated by "things" called TIMP-1s but in MS folks these things are in short supply so these rogue MMP-s go on a killing spree in your brain. IFN-Betas will restore the ratio to 1:1 in about 6 months.
Sad to say IFN-Betas get destroyed/cleaved into bits when they encounter a MMP-9.
Check PubMed by doing a search on "MMP-9 multiple sclerosis".
THIS IS NOT, REPEAT NOT THE CAUSE OF MS!!!
Just a mechanism of destruction of BBB and myelin.
(Below is from my earlier post on this board)
(see fig 2 and narrative on page 505)
MMP-9s KILL the activity of ALL IFN-Betas.
It is a VERY GOOD IDEA to lower MMP-9s if taking an Ifn-Beta drug.
If you want to maximize Avonex (or any beta interferon), lowering MMP-9s will prevent it from being degraded by being cleaved into parts thus killing its Activity/Effectiveness.
Also getting the most activity from the least amount of near natural (human) interferon like Avonex will usually result in MUCH LESS neutralizing antibody formation (2-5% vrs 20-26%).
Things that reduce MMP-9s (AKA gelatinase B)
These "things" have been known for some time to help MS folks.
This is the WHY!
VIT D3 .................................REDUCES MMP-9s
RESVERATROL (Grape Skin Extract) ...REDUCES MMP-9s
(NOT Grape SEED Extract)
GREEN TEA EXTRACT(EGCGs)... REDUCES MMP-9s
ALPHA LIPOIC ACID (R-lipoic/ R-Dihdro-LipoicAcid) ... REDUCES MMP-9s
NAC N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine .......REDUCES MMP-9s
STATIN DRUGS (i.e Zocor) .....REDUCES MMP-9s
Omega-3s (ie Fish oil) ...........REDUCES MMP-9s
Pycnogenol (Pine bark extract)..REDUCES MMP-9s
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and CS plus glucosamine sulfate (GS) ..REDUCES MMP-9s
Interferon Betas 1a/1b...........REDUCES MMP-9
(of course Steroids ....REDUCES MMP-9s)
***NOTE*** ( gelatinase B = MMP-9) ***NOTE***
I have lots more information on this MMP - MS - INTERFERON-beta connection and will elaborate it if there is some interest in this subject here. For the real techie stuff check the link shown below
(see fig 2 and narrative on page 505)
Lancet Neurol. 2003 Dec;2(12):747-56.
Functional roles and therapeutic targeting of gelatinase B and chemokines in
Opdenakker G, Nelissen I, Van Damme J.
GO, IN, and JVD are at the Rega Institute for Medical Research, University
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the CNS of unknown
cause. Pathogenetic mechanisms, such as chemotaxis, subsequent activation of
autoreactive lymphocytes, and skewing of the extracellular proteinase
balance, are targets for new therapies.
Matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B (MMP-9) is upregulated in MS and was
recently shown to degrade interferon beta, one of the drugs used to treat
Consequently, the effect of endogenously produced interferon beta or
parenterally given interferon beta may be increased by gelatinase B
inhibitors. Blockage of chemotaxis or cell adhesion molecule engagement, and
inhibition of hydoxymethyl-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase to lower expression
of gelatinase B, may become effective treatments of MS, alone or in
combination with interferon beta. This may allow interferon beta to be used
at lower doses and prevent side-effects.
PMID: 14636780 [PubMed - in process]
1: Brain. 2003 Jun;126(Pt 6):1371-81.
Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 cleaves interferon-beta and is a
target for immunotherapy.
Nelissen I, Martens E, Van den Steen PE, Proost P, Ronsse I, Opdenakker G.
Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology,
University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Parenteral administration of interferon (IFN)-beta is one of the currently
approved therapies for multiple sclerosis. One characteristic of this
disease is the increased production of gelatinase B, also called matrix
metalloproteinase (MMP) 9. Gelatinase B is capable of destroying the
blood-brain barrier, and of cleaving myelin basic protein into
immunodominant and encephalitogenic fragments, thus playing a functional
role and being a therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis. Here we
demonstrate that gelatinase B proteolytically cleaves IFN-beta, kills its
activity, and hence counteracts this cytokine as an antiviral and
immunotherapeutic agent. This proteolysis is more pronounced with
IFN-beta-1b than with IFN-beta-1a. Furthermore, the tetracycline
minocycline, which has a known blocking effect in experimental autoimmune
encephalomyelitis, an in vivo model of acute inflammation in multiple
sclerosis, and other MMP inhibitors prevent the in vitro degradation of
IFN-beta by gelatinase B. These data provide a novel mechanism and rationale
for the inhibition of gelatinase B in diseases in which IFN-beta has a
beneficial effect. The combination of gelatinase B inhibitors with better
and lower pharmacological formulations of IFN-beta may reduce the
side-effects of treatment with IFN-beta, and is therefore proposed for
multiple sclerosis therapy and the immunotherapy of viral infections.
PMID: 12764058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1: Neuroscientist 2002 Dec;8(6):586-95
Matrix metalloproteinases and neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis.
Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center,
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix remodeling neutral proteases that are important in normal development, angiogenesis, wound repair, and a wide range of pathological processes. Growing evidence supports a key role of the MMPs in many neuroinflammatory conditions, including meningitis, encephalitis, brain tumors, cerebral ischemia, Guillain-Barre, and multiple sclerosis (MS).
The MMPs attack the basal lamina macromolecules that line the blood vessels, opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB). They contribute to the remodeling of the blood vessels that causes hyalinosis and gliosis, and they attack myelin. During the acute inflammatory phase of MS, they are involved in the injury to the blood vessels and may be important in the disruption of the myelin sheath and axons. Normally under tight regulation, excessive proteolytic activity is detected in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with acute MS. Because they are induced in immunologic and nonimmunologic forms of demyelination, they act as a final common pathway to exert a "bystander" effect.
AGENTS THAT BLOCK THE ACTION OF THE MMPS HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO REDUCE THE DAMAGE TO THE BBB AND LEAD TO SYMPTOMATIC IMPROVEMENT IN SEVERAL ANIMAL MODELS OF NEUROINFLAMMATORY DISEASES, INCLUDING EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. SUCH AGENTS MAY EVENTUALLY BE USEFUL IN THE CONTROL OF EXCESSIVE PROTEOLYSIS THAT CONTRIBUTES TO THE PATHOLOGY OF MS AND OTHER NEUROINFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS.