Nutrigenomics/Epigenetics

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Nutrigenomics/Epigenetics

Postby jimmylegs » Tue Oct 31, 2017 3:25 pm

Nutrigenomics: The Genome–Food Interface
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2137135/

"Efforts to unveil the etiology of human disease often recapitulate the nature versus nurture debate. But today’s biologists concede that neither nature nor nurture alone can explain the molecular processes that ultimately govern human health. The presence of a particular gene or mutation in most cases merely connotes a predisposition to a particular disease process. Whether that genetic potential will eventually manifest as a disease depends on a complex interplay between the human genome and environmental and behavioral factors. This understanding has helped spawn numerous multidisciplinary gene-based approaches to the study of health and disease.

One such endeavor is nutrigenomics, the integration of genomic science with nutrition and, when possible, other lifestyle variables such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Although genes are critical for determining function, nutrition modifies the extent to which different genes are expressed and thereby modulates whether individuals attain the potential established by their genetic background.

Nutrigenomics therefore initially referred to the study of the effects of nutrients on the expression of an individual’s genetic makeup. More recently, this definition has been broadened to encompass nutritional factors that protect the genome from damage. Ultimately, nutrigenomics is concerned with the impact of dietary components on the genome, the proteome (the sum total of all proteins), and the metabolome (the sum of all metabolites). As in pharmacogenomics, where a drug will have diverse impacts on different segments of the population, researchers recognize that only a portion of the population will respond positively to specific nutritional interventions, while others will be unresponsive, and still other could even be adversely affected."

Epigenetics: Fundamentals
https://www.whatisepigenetics.com/fundamentals/

"Epigenetics and the Environment: How Lifestyle Can Influence Epigenetic Change from One Generation to the Next
The field of epigenetics is quickly growing and with it the understanding that both the environment and individual lifestyle can also directly interact with the genome to influence epigenetic change. These changes may be reflected at various stages throughout a person’s life and even in later generations. For example, human epidemiological studies have provided evidence that prenatal and early postnatal environmental factors influence the adult risk of developing various chronic diseases and behavioral disorders.5 Studies have shown that children born during the period of the Dutch famine from 1944-1945 have increased rates of coronary heart disease and obesity after maternal exposure to famine during early pregnancy compared to those not exposed to famine.6 Less DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene, a well-characterized epigenetic locus, was found to be associated with this exposure.7 Likewise, adults that were prenatally exposed to famine conditions have also been reported to have significantly higher incidence of schizophrenia.89

Clinical Applications – Epigenetic Diseases
Immunity & Related Disorders. There are several pieces of evidence showing that loss of epigenetic control over complex immune processes contributes to autoimmune disease. Abnormal DNA methylation has been observed in patients with lupus whose T cells exhibit decreased DNA methyltransferase activity and hypomethylated DNA. Disregulation of this pathway apparently leads to overexpression of methylation-sensitive genes such as the leukocyte function-associated factor (LFA1), which causes lupus-like autoimmunity. Interestingly, LFA1 expression is also required for the development of arthritis, which raises the possibility that altered DNA methylation patterns may contribute to other diseases displaying idiopathic autoimmunity."
odd sx? no dx? check w/ dietitian
DRI=MINIMUM eg bit.ly/1vgQclQ
99% don't meet these. meds/lifestyle can affect levels
status can be low in ms & other cond'ns
'but my results are normal'. typical panels don't test all
deficits occur in 'normal' range
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jimmylegs
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