Nutrigenomics/Epigenetics

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Nutrigenomics/Epigenetics

Postby jimmylegs » Tue Oct 31, 2017 4:25 pm

Nutrigenomics: The Genome–Food Interface
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2137135/

"Efforts to unveil the etiology of human disease often recapitulate the nature versus nurture debate. But today’s biologists concede that neither nature nor nurture alone can explain the molecular processes that ultimately govern human health. The presence of a particular gene or mutation in most cases merely connotes a predisposition to a particular disease process. Whether that genetic potential will eventually manifest as a disease depends on a complex interplay between the human genome and environmental and behavioral factors. This understanding has helped spawn numerous multidisciplinary gene-based approaches to the study of health and disease.

One such endeavor is nutrigenomics, the integration of genomic science with nutrition and, when possible, other lifestyle variables such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Although genes are critical for determining function, nutrition modifies the extent to which different genes are expressed and thereby modulates whether individuals attain the potential established by their genetic background.

Nutrigenomics therefore initially referred to the study of the effects of nutrients on the expression of an individual’s genetic makeup. More recently, this definition has been broadened to encompass nutritional factors that protect the genome from damage. Ultimately, nutrigenomics is concerned with the impact of dietary components on the genome, the proteome (the sum total of all proteins), and the metabolome (the sum of all metabolites). As in pharmacogenomics, where a drug will have diverse impacts on different segments of the population, researchers recognize that only a portion of the population will respond positively to specific nutritional interventions, while others will be unresponsive, and still other could even be adversely affected."

Epigenetics: Fundamentals
https://www.whatisepigenetics.com/fundamentals/

"Epigenetics and the Environment: How Lifestyle Can Influence Epigenetic Change from One Generation to the Next
The field of epigenetics is quickly growing and with it the understanding that both the environment and individual lifestyle can also directly interact with the genome to influence epigenetic change. These changes may be reflected at various stages throughout a person’s life and even in later generations. For example, human epidemiological studies have provided evidence that prenatal and early postnatal environmental factors influence the adult risk of developing various chronic diseases and behavioral disorders.5 Studies have shown that children born during the period of the Dutch famine from 1944-1945 have increased rates of coronary heart disease and obesity after maternal exposure to famine during early pregnancy compared to those not exposed to famine.6 Less DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene, a well-characterized epigenetic locus, was found to be associated with this exposure.7 Likewise, adults that were prenatally exposed to famine conditions have also been reported to have significantly higher incidence of schizophrenia.89

Clinical Applications – Epigenetic Diseases
Immunity & Related Disorders. There are several pieces of evidence showing that loss of epigenetic control over complex immune processes contributes to autoimmune disease. Abnormal DNA methylation has been observed in patients with lupus whose T cells exhibit decreased DNA methyltransferase activity and hypomethylated DNA. Disregulation of this pathway apparently leads to overexpression of methylation-sensitive genes such as the leukocyte function-associated factor (LFA1), which causes lupus-like autoimmunity. Interestingly, LFA1 expression is also required for the development of arthritis, which raises the possibility that altered DNA methylation patterns may contribute to other diseases displaying idiopathic autoimmunity."
take control of your own health
pursue optimal self care at least as actively as a diagnosis
ask for referrals to preventive health care specialists eg dietitians
don't let suboptimal self care muddy any underlying diagnostic picture!
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Re: Nutrigenomics/Epigenetics

Postby jimmylegs » Fri Jun 29, 2018 2:46 pm

more 'useless' serum magnesium science :roll:

Serum magnesium levels and risk of coronary artery disease: Mendelian randomisation study (2018)
fft: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/a ... 018-1065-z

Abstract
Background

Observational studies have shown that serum magnesium levels are inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We conducted a Mendelian randomisation study to investigate whether serum magnesium levels may be causally associated with coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods
This Mendelian randomisation analysis is based on summary-level data from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium’s 1000 Genomes-based genome-wide association meta-analysis of 48 studies with a total of 60,801 CAD cases and 123,504 non-cases. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with serum magnesium levels at genome-wide significance were used as instrumental variables.

Results
A genetic predisposition to higher serum magnesium levels was inversely associated with CAD. In conventional Mendelian randomisation analysis, the odds ratio of CAD was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 0.99; P = 0.03) per 0.1-mmol/L (about 1 standard deviation) increase in genetically predicted serum magnesium levels. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses using the weighted median and heterogeneity-penalised model averaging methods, with odds ratios of 0.84 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; P = 0.03) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.96; P = 0.02), respectively.

Conclusions
This study based on genetics provides evidence that serum magnesium levels are inversely associated with risk of CAD. Randomised controlled trials elucidating whether magnesium supplementation lowers the risk of CAD, preferably in a setting at higher risk of hypomagnesaemia, are warranted.


Background
Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation. It plays a crucial role in many processes regulating cardiovascular function, such as vascular tone, endothelial function and myocardial excitability, and it is involved in regulation of glucose and insulin metabolism [1, 2]. Experimental evidence indicates that magnesium insufficiency promotes atherosclerosis and that magnesium fortification attenuates atherogenesis [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Moreover, randomised controlled trials have shown that magnesium supplementation improves endothelial function [8, 9] and reduces blood pressure [8, 10, 11, 12], arterial stiffness [13], fasting glucose [12, 14], insulin resistance [15] and postoperative arrhythmias [16, 17]. Randomised controlled trials assessing whether magnesium supplementation may prevent cardiovascular events are lacking...

...causality excerpt...

Exploiting genetic variants as instrumental variables of an exposure can strengthen causal inference regarding an exposure-outcome relationship. This technique, known as Mendelian randomisation (MR), reduces confounding because genetic variants are randomly allocated at meiosis and thus should be unrelated to self-selected lifestyle factors and behaviours. It also overcomes reverse causation bias since allelic randomisation always precedes the onset of disease.

...results excerpt...

There is no gold standard MR analysis method. Available methods have advantages and limitations that balance precision and adjustment for bias. In the present study, several MR approaches were applied to evaluate the robustness of the causal association between serum magnesium levels and CAD.

seems the jury is still out on genetic causality where low serum mag associations with increased CAD exist. yes pls to more research!
take control of your own health
pursue optimal self care at least as actively as a diagnosis
ask for referrals to preventive health care specialists eg dietitians
don't let suboptimal self care muddy any underlying diagnostic picture!
User avatar
jimmylegs
Volunteer Moderator
 
Posts: 11306
Joined: Sat Mar 11, 2006 4:00 pm


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