more stuff on the calcification theme;
1: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Sep;295(3):H931-H938. Epub 2008 Jul 11. Links
Characterization of blood borne microparticles as markers of premature coronary calcification in newly menopausal women.Jayachandran M, Litwiller RD, Owen WG, Heit JA, Behrenbeck T, Mulvagh SL, Araoz PA, Budoff MJ, Harman SM, Miller VM.
Department of Surgery and Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
While the risk for symptomatic atherosclerotic disease increases after menopause, currently recognized risk factors do not identify ongoing disease processes in low-risk women. This study tested the hypothesis that circulating cell-derived microparticles may reflect disease processes in women defined as low risk by the Framingham risk score. The concentration and phenotype of circulating microparticles were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of apparently healthy menopausal women, screened for enrollment into the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Microparticles were evaluated by flow cytometry, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) was scored using 64-slice computed tomography scanners. The procoagulant activity of isolated microparticles was determined with a sensitive fluorescent thrombin generation assay. Chronological age, body mass index, serum lipids, systolic blood pressure (Framingham risk score < 10%, range 1-3%), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not differ significantly among women with low (0 < 35; range, 0.3-32 Agatston units) or high (>50; range, 93-315 Agatston units) CAC compared with women without calcification. The total concentration and percentage of microparticles derived from platelets and endothelial cells were greatest in women with high CAC scores
. The thrombin-generating capacity of the isolated microparticles correlated with phosphatidylserine expression, which also was greatest in women with high CAC scores. The percentages of microparticles expressing granulocyte and monocyte markers were not significantly different among groups. Therefore, the characterization of platelet and endothelial microparticles may identify early menopausal women with premature CAC who would not otherwise be identified by the usual risk factor analysis.
PMID: 18621859 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1: Cell Tissue Res. 2009 Jan;335(1):143-51. Epub 2008 Nov 7. Links
Endothelial microparticles in diseases.Chironi GN, Boulanger CM, Simon A, Dignat-George F, Freyssinet JM, Tedgui A.
AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Centre de Médecine Préventive Cardiovasculaire and Université René Descartes, Paris, France. email@example.com
Microparticles are submicron vesicles shed from plasma membranes in response to cell activation, injury, and/or apoptosis. The measurement of the phospholipid content (mainly phosphatidylserine; PSer) of microparticles and the detection of proteins specific for the cells from which they are derived has allowed their quantification and characterization. Microparticles of various cellular origin (platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells) are found in the plasma of healthy subjects, and their amount increases under pathological conditions. Endothelial microparticles (EMP) not only constitute an emerging marker of endothelial dysfunction, but are also considered to play a major biological role in inflammation, vascular injury, angiogenesis, and thrombosis. Although the mechanisms leading to their in vivo formation remain obscure, the release of EMP from cultured cells can be caused in vitro by a number of cytokines and apoptotic stimuli. Recent studies indicate that EMP are able to decrease nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation, increase arterial stiffness, promote inflammation, and initiate thrombosis at their PSer-rich membrane, which highly co-expresses tissue factor. EMP are known to be elevated in acute coronary syndromes, in severe hypertension with end organ damage, and in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, all conditions associated with endothelial injury and pro-thrombotic state. The release of EMP has also been associated with endothelial dysfunction of patients with multiple sclerosis and lupus anticoagulant. More recent studies have focused on the role of low shear stress leading to endothelial cell apoptosis and subsequent EMP release in end-stage renal disease. Improved knowledge of EMP composition, their biological effects, and the mechanisms leading to their clearance will probably open new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atherothrombosis.
PMID: 18989704 [PubMed - in process]
1: Neurology. 2001 May 22;56(10):1319-24. Linkslink
Elevated plasma endothelial microparticles in multiple sclerosis.Minagar A, Jy W, Jimenez JJ, Sheremata WA, Mauro LM, Mao WW, Horstman LL, Ahn YS.
Department of Neurology, University of Miami, FL 33136, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To assess endothelial dysfunction in patients with MS and to investigate whether plasma from patients with MS induces endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro. BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of MS. Elevations of soluble adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) have been reported as markers of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage in MS, but direct assay of endothelium has been difficult. Endothelial cells release microparticles < approximately 1.5 microm (EMP) during activation or apoptosis. The authors developed a flow cytometric assay of EMP and studied EMP as markers of endothelial damage in MS. METHODS: Platelet-poor plasma (PPP) from 50 patients with MS (30 in exacerbation and 20 in remission) and 48 controls were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD31 and anti-CD51 (vitronectin receptor) antibodies, and two classes of EMP (CD31+ and CD51+) were assayed by flow cytometry. For in vitro studies, patients' plasma was added to the microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) culture and release of CD31+ and CD51+ EMP were measured in the supernatant. RESULTS: Plasma from patients in exacerbation had 2.85-fold elevation of CD31+ EMP as compared with healthy controls, returning to near control value during remission. The CD31+ EMP concentration showed a positive association with gadolinium enhancement in patients with MS. In contrast, CD51+ EMP remained elevated in both exacerbation and remission. This suggests that CD31+ EMP is a marker of acute injury, whereas CD51+ EMP reflects chronic injury of endothelium. MS plasma induced release of both CD31+ and CD51+ EMP from MVEC culture in vitro. CONCLUSION: Endothelial dysfunction is evident during exacerbation of MS, evidenced by shedding of EMP expressing PECAM-1 (CD31). The in vitro data indicate contribution of one or more plasma factors in endothelial dysfunction of MS.
PMID: 11376181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]