link1: J Vasc Res. 2008;45(5):427-36. Epub 2008 Apr 10. Links
The circulating inactive form of matrix Gla Protein (ucMGP) as a biomarker for cardiovascular calcification.Cranenburg EC, Vermeer C, Koos R, Boumans ML, Hackeng TM, Bouwman FG, Kwaijtaal M, Brandenburg VM, Ketteler M, Schurgers LJ.
VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
OBJECTIVE: Matrix gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent protein and a strong inhibitor of vascular calcification. Vitamin K deficiency leads to inactive uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP), which accumulates at sites of arterial calcification. We hypothesized that as a result of ucMGP deposition around arterial calcification, the circulating fraction of ucMGP is decreased. Here we report on the development of an ucMGP assay and the potential diagnostic utility of monitoring serum ucMGP levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: An ELISA-based assay was developed with which circulating ucMGP can be determined. Serum ucMGP levels were measured in healthy subjects (n = 165) and in four patient populations; patients who underwent angioplasty (n = 30), patients with aortic stenosis (n = 25), hemodialysis patients (n = 52), and calciphylaxis patients (n = 10). All four patient populations had significantly lower ucMGP levels. In angioplasty patients and in those with aortic stenosis, some overlap was observed with the control population. However, in the hemodialysis and calciphylaxis populations, virtually all subjects had ucMGP levels below the normal adult range. CONCLUSION: Serum ucMGP may be used as a biomarker to identify those at risk for developing vascular calcification. This assay may become an important tool in the diagnosis of cardiovascular calcification. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
PMID: 18401181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related ArticlesUndercarboxylated matrix GLA protein levels are decreased in dialysis patients and related to parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism and aortic augmentation index. [Blood Purif. 2007] Novel conformation-specific antibodies against matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein: undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein as marker for vascular calcification. [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005] Serum levels of calcification inhibition proteins and coronary artery calcium score: comparison between transplantation and dialysis. [Am J Nephrol. 2007] ReviewMatrix Gla-protein: the calcification inhibitor in need of vitamin K. [Thromb Haemost. 2008] Review[Calcified coronary artery disease and serum markers] [Clin Calcium. 2007] » See Reviews... | » See All...
endothelin 1, overexpressed in MS reemerges in this context;
link1: Calcif Tissue Int. 2008 Sep;83(3):192-201. Epub 2008 Aug 29. Links
Relationship between arterial calcification and bone loss in a new combined model rat by ovariectomy and vitamin D(3) plus nicotine.Park JH, Omi N, Iemitsu M, Maeda S, Kitajima A, Nosaka T, Ezawa I.
Institute of Health and Sports Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan.
Epidemiological studies have reported an association between arterial calcification and bone loss after menopause. However, the underlying mechanism of the association remains unclear. Therefore, to explore the possible mechanisms of the association, we tried to develop a new combined model rat of ovariectomy (OVX, an animal model of osteoporosis) and vitamin D(3) plus nicotine (VDN rat, an animal model of arterial calcification). We tested them by using sham-operated control rats (SC), OVX control rats (OC), and OVX plus VDN-treated rats (OVN). Dissections were performed twice at 4 (4SC, 4OC, and 4OVN) and 8 (8SC, 8OC, and 8OVN) weeks after treatment. 8OVN showed bone loss and arterial calcification, although 8OC showed only bone loss. Moreover, arterial calcium content was associated with indexes of bone loss at 8 weeks. Thus, the OVN rat is considered a good model to examine the relationship of the two disorders after menopause. Additionally, the arterial endothelin-1 (ET-1, a potent regulator of arterial calcification) levels increased in both 4OVN and 8OVN, and the level was associated with arterial calcium content at 8 weeks. Furthermore, the arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein, which is an enzyme that produces nitric oxide (an antiatherosclerotic substance), was significantly reduced in only 8OVN. Estrogens affect the alterations of the eNOS and ET-1 proteins. Therefore, we suggest that impairment of the ET-1- and NO-producing system in arterial tissue during periods of rapid bone loss by estrogen deficiency might be a mechanism of the relationship between the two disorders seen in postmenopausal women.
PMID: 18758843 [PubMed - in process]