ABSTRACT Zinc nutriture and immune function were studied in 100 subjects, age 60-89 yr. Mean (+/- SD) zinc concentrations found were 84.8 +/- 15.5 micrograms/dL (13.0 +/- 2.4 microM) for plasma, 1.04 +/- 0.24 micrograms (0.016 +/- 0.004 mumol)/10(9) cells for erythrocytes, 4.06 +/- 1.85 micrograms (0.062 +/- 0.028 mumol)/10(9) cells for mononuclear cells, 3.91 +/- 1.77 micrograms (0.060 +/- 0.027 mumol)/10(9) cells for polymorphonuclear leukocytes, 0.53 +/- 0.39 micrograms (0.0081 +/- 0.0060 mumol)/10(9) cells for platelets, and 222 +/- 101 micrograms (3.39 +/- 1.54 mumol)/g for hair. Zinc ingestion was below the RDA in more than 90% of study subjects. The incidence of anergy to a panel of seven skin test antigens was 41%; responses to these antigens were significantly associated with the plasma zinc concentration. Subjects with depressed lymphocyte responses to mitogens had significantly lower platelet and significantly higher mononuclear cell zinc concentrations than those with normal responses.
This article describes the findings of ocular examinations of patients who were referred to the eye department of the Nationaal Multiple Sclerosis Centrum of Melsbroek, Belgium, from 2007 to 2010. ...The sample consisted of 284 adults: 111 males and 173 females. Only the findings of patients with a definite diagnosis of MS are reported. ... The main reason for consultation was to determine whether there were refractive errors that needed correction. Other reasons for consultation were headache, disturbing diplopia, suspected acute optic neuritis, blepharoconjunctivitis, evaluation of profound visual failure, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, measurement of intraocular pressure, cataracts, nystagmus, uveitis, photophobia, anisocoria, and dry eye.
Purpose of review: Multiple sclerosis may affect both afferent and efferent visual pathways, and sometimes physicians err on ordinary ophthalmologic diagnosis due to overlapping symptoms between demyelinating and nondemyelinating visual diseases. The present article highlights nondemyelinating ocular occurrences due to physiologic or other pathologic processes that may appear in some patients.
Recent findings: Optic neuritis is representative of the most common and best-studied demyelinating visual occurrence in multiple sclerosis. However, other nondemyelinating visual disturbances also seen in the general population may be erroneously interpreted as being part of the underlying disease. This comparison has not been documented and may be helpful to overcome such difficulties.
Summary: Based on clinical history and some strategies of ophthalmologic examination, physicians can achieve the correct diagnosis. Some clinical situations, however, may be challenging and a multidisciplinary approach in the care of multiple sclerosis is warranted.
INTRODUCTION: Investigating the relationship between the serum levels of zinc and copper with blepharitis.
METHODS: Twenty seven patients with blepharitis and 24 control group patients were evaluated for Schirmer, fluorescein break up time (FBUT) scores and serum levels of zinc and copper. Symptoms and clinical examination scores of blepharitis patients were also assessed.
RESULTS: The serum level of zinc (65.78+/-15.51 in patients with blepharitis and 65.71+/-10.43 in patients without blepharitis, normal values in the laboratory: 70-127 microg/dl) and copper (67.17+/-22.24 in patients with blepharitis and 69.35+/-14.44 in patients without blepharitis, normal values in the laboratory: 70-150 microg/dl) were not different between the two groups. The symptom and clinical examination scores of blephraritis patients were not correlated with the serum levels of either zinc or copper. DiSCUSSiON: The zinc and copper levels in serum do not seem to be related to blepharitis. Their tear levels and sensory status of cornea should also be evaluated to better evaluate a possible relation.
The physiological functions for zinc have been studied predominantly in retina and retinal pigment epithelium where zinc is believed to interact with taurine and vitamin A, modify photoreceptor plasma membranes, regulate the light-rhodopsin reaction, modulate synaptic transmission and serve as an antioxidant. Suboptimal zinc status in North America may influence the development and progression of several chronic eye diseases.
There is currently substantial clinical interest in zinc (Zn) as a protective agent against radiation-related normal tissue injury. To further assess this drug's potential, the effect of Zn was studied in rats using a radiation-induced skin injury model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 received neither Zn nor irradiation (control group). Group 2 received 30 Gy of gamma irradiation as a single dose to the right hind legs of the rats (RT Group). Groups 3 and 4 received the same irradiation plus 5 mg/kg/day Zn (RT+5 Zn group) or 10 mg/kg/day Zn orally (RT+10 Zn group), respectively. The rats were irradiated using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. Acute skin reactions were assessed every three days by two independent radiation oncology experts. At the endpoint of the study, light-microscopic findings were assessed by two independent expert pathology physicians. Clinically and histopathologically, irradiation increased dermatitis when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The severity of radiodermatitis of the rats in the RT+5 Zn and RT+10 Zn groups was significantly lower than in the RT group (p < 0.05); radiodermatitis was seen earlier in the RT group than in the other groups (p < 0.05). Zn was found to be efficacious in preventing epidermal atrophy, dermal degeneration such as edema and collagen fiber loss, and hair follicle atrophy. The most protection for radiation dermatitis was observed in the RT+10 Zn group. It would be worthwhile studying the effects of zinc sulphate supplements in radiation-treated cancer patients, in the hope of reducing radiation-induced toxicity.
The chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), formerly known as chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome, is a clinical state of some complexity and uncertain etiology. In order to characterize in a comprehensive manner the status of laboratory markers associated with cellular immune function in patients with this syndrome, 30 patients with clinically defined CFS were studied. All of the subjects were found to have multiple abnormalities in these markers. The most consistent immunological abnormality detected among these patients, when compared with normal controls, was low natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity. The number of NK cells, as defined by reactivity with monoclonal antibody NKH.1 (CD56), was elevated, but the killing of K562 tumor cells per CD56 cell was significantly diminished. Lymphoproliferative responses after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen were decreased in most patients when compared with those in normal controls, as was the production of gamma interferon following mitogen stimulation.Lymphocyte phenotypic marker analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed that there were significant differences between patients with CFS and controls. There was an increase in the percentage of suppressor-cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CD8, and a proportionally larger increase in the number of CD8 cells expressing the class II activation marker. Most patients had an elevated number of CD2 cells which expressed the activation marker CDw26. The numbers of CD4 cells and the helper subset of CD4+CD29+ cells in patients with CFS were not different from those in controls. There was, however, a significant decrease in the suppressor inducer subset of CD4+ CD45RA+ cells. The number of B cells, CD20 and CD21, were elevated, as were the numbers of a subset of B cells which coexpressed CD20 and CD5. The patterns of immune marker abnormalities observed was compatible with a chronic viral reactivation syndrome.
The present study examines serum zinc concentrations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) versus normal volunteers. Serum zinc levels were determined by means of an atomic absorption method. We found that serum zinc was significantly lower in the CFS patients than in the normal controls. There was a trend toward a significant negative correlation between serum zinc and the severity of CFS and there was a significant and negative correlation between serum zinc and the subjective experience of infection. We found that serum zinc was significantly and negatively correlated to the increase in the alpha2 protein fraction and positively correlated to decreases in the expression of mitogen-induced CD69+ (a T cell activation marker) on CD3+ as well as CD3+CD8+ T cells. These results show that CFS is accompanied by a low serum zinc status and that the latter is related to signs of inflammation and defects in early T cell activation pathways. Since zinc is a strong anti-oxidant, the present results further support the findings that CFS is accompanied by increased oxidative stress. The results of these reports suggest that some patients with CFS should be treated with specific antioxidants, including zinc supplements.
Z[n]2+ appears to stabilize the myelin sheath but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. In a previous report we have shown that zinc binds to CNS myelin basic protein (MBP) in the presence of phosphate and this results in MBP aggregation. For this paper we used a solid phase zinc blotting assay to identify which myelin proteins bind zinc. MBP and a 58 kDa band were found to be the major targets of65Zn binding. Moreover, using fluorescence, light scattering and electron microscopy we investigated the binding of zinc and other cations to purified MBP in solution. Among the cations tested for their ability to interfere with the binding of zinc, the most effective were cadmium, mercury and copper, but only cadmium and mercury increased the scattering intensity, whereas MBP aggregation was not inhibited by copper ions. Thus, the effect of zinc on the formation of MBP clusters seems to be specific.
The zinc-binding proteins (ZnBPs) in porcine brain were characterized by the radioactive zinc-blot technique. Three ZnBPs of molecular weights about 53 kDa, 42 kDa, and 21 kDa were identified. The 53 kDa and 42 kDa ZnBPs were found in all subcellular fractions while the 21 kDa ZnBP was mainly associated with particulate fractions. This 21 kDa ZnBP was identified by internal protein sequence data as the myelin basic protein. Further characterization of its electrophoretic properties and cyanogen bromide cleavage pattern with the authentic protein confirmed its identity. The zinc binding properties of myelin basic protein are metal specific, concentration dependent and pH dependent. The zinc binding property is conferred by the histidine residues since modification of these residues by diethyl-pyrocarbonate would abolish this activity. Furthermore, zinc ion was found to potentiate myelin basic protein-induced phospholipid vesicle aggregation. It is likely that zinc plays an important role in myelin compaction by interacting with myelin basic protein.
Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an essential structural protein required for tight compaction of the myelin sheath of the central nervous system, and belongs to the family of intrinsically disordered proteins. It contains a high proportion of polar and charged amino acids, and has an adaptive conformation depending on its environment and binding surfaces (membranes) or partners (other proteins or small ligands including divalent cations). Zinc is an important stabilizing component of myelin and its concentration is substantially higher than that of any other trace element in the brain. In this study, we investigate the effect of zinc on different variants of 18.5 kDa MBP, including new recombinant forms lacking hexahistidine tags which would interfere with the binding of the cation. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed the dissociation constant to be in the micromolar range for all variants. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that there was minimal effect of zinc on the secondary structure on MBP in aqueous solution. When MBP was reconstituted with myelin-mimetic membranes, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that there was a rearrangement of secondary structure components upon addition of zinc that was subtly different for each variant, indicative of a synergistic protein-membrane-cation interaction.
... wish i had full text access to this one :SThe myelin sheath is an insulating membrane layer surrounding myelinated axons in vertebrates, which is formed when the plasma membrane of an oligodendrocyte or a Schwann cell wraps itself around the axon. A large fraction of the total protein in this membrane layer is comprised of only a small number of individual proteins, which have certain intriguing structural properties. The myelin proteins are implicated in a number of neurological diseases, including, for example, autoimmune diseases and peripheral neuropathies. In this review, the structural properties of a number of myelin-specific proteins are described.
... i can't WAIT to see that 'minimal variation' re cu, mg and zn, and the significant differences in all those others.Twenty-six chemical elements and oxidative status were determined in serum of 12 patients with first demyelinating episode and brain magnetic resonance imaging compatible with the disease at different time points. Quantifications of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, V, Tl, W, Zn and Zr, as well as of serum oxidative status and antioxidant capacity were carried out. The results were compared with values obtained from healthy subjects living in the same geographic area. Concentration variability, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV), was evaluated over a six months longitudinal follow-up. The CV was higher for Li and Pb, while showed minimal variation for Ca, Cu, Mg and Zn--elements strictly body regulated. Significant difference (p < or = 0.05) in mean concentrations of Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Si, Sn and Zr between patients at time 0 and controls was also found.
This study was carried out to assess the serum levels of magnesium, copper, and zinc after an acute episode of myocardial infarction. Determination of the metal concentrations were carried out on 41 patients with myocardial infarction and 41 healthy controls matched for age and sex. A slight decrease in the mean level of magnesium (P less than .05) was observed in patients (2.0 mg/dl) compared with the controls (2.1 mg/dl). The mean serum copper concentration was significantly higher (P less than .001) in patients (138 micrograms/dl) than in controls (98 micrograms/dl), while the mean serum zinc concentration was significantly lower (P less than .001) in patients (75 micrograms/dl) than in controls (100 micrograms/dl). The differences in serum copper and zinc levels between patients and controls were magnified considerably when the copper/zinc ratios were calculated for both groups (P less than .001). The mean copper/zinc value obtained for patients (1.91) was almost double that for the controls (1.02).
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