Mult Scler. 2002 Dec;8(6):452-8. Links
Retinol measurements and retinoid receptor gene expression in patients with multiple sclerosis.Royal W 3rd, Gartner S, Gajewski CD.
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. email@example.com
Treatment with interferon (IFN)-beta1a has been associated with decreased disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In several biological systems, type 1 IFNs and retinoids have been demonstrated to have synergistic effects. In these studies, we measured blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) retinol levels and naïve and memory T-helper cell subset percentages in samples from a group of patients with MS. We also examined retinol receptor expression in peripheral blood cells from MS patients with or without a history of prior treatment with IFN-beta1a. The mean plasma retinol level for untreated relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients was lower than for patients with noninflammatory neurological disease. Among IFN-beta1a-treated RR patients, mean levels were slightly higher than for RR patients not on treatment Lower plasma retinol levels among the MS patents studied were associated with higher CSF retinol index measurements--a measure that was calculated to correct for nonspecific leakage of retinol from blood into CSF. Far the MS samples examined, there was a borderline statstically significant direct correlation between CSF retinol index measurements and CSF memory T-helper cell percentages. Examination of peripheral blood from untreated RR patents for retinoid receptor mRNA expression revealed the expression of the retinoic add receptor (RAR)-alpha, RAR-gamma, and retinoic X receptor (RXR)-alpha receptor subtypes. For RR patients on IFN-beta1a therapy, expression of the some RAR subtypes was noted as well as expression of RXR-beta and RXR-gamma. These studies suggest an association between plasma retinol levels and clincal disease activity in patents with MS and that treatment with IFN-beta1a may be associated with activation of specific retnoid receptor subtypes.
January 26, 2006
MRI total spine.
Sagittal T1, axial T2, coronoal myelographic images have been done through the total spine.
Post gadolinium T1 sequences were repeated.
On the T2 sequences, note is made of increased signal in the cord, this is mostly in the cervical area. The increased signal in the cord extends from approximately C3 down to C7.
In the cervical area were the highest concentrations of increased signal being at approximately at the C3-4 and C6 levels.
At the D4 level, note is also made of a small area of increased signal as well as in the region of the superior aspect of the conus at approximately D12.
In addition, note is made of some bulging discs at the C4-5, C5-6, and C6-7 levels.
The bulge is greatest at the C4-5 level. There is no indentation of the cord, but the thecal sac is almost totally obliterated anteriorly. The neural foramen are within normal limits.
September 21, 2007
MRI of entire spine.
Provided clinical information: 36 yo female. Clinically definite multiple sclerosis.
Follow up to previous from January 2006.
Reference study: MRI of entire spine from January 26, 2006.
Protocol: Sagittal T2 restore, sagittal TSE T1, sagittal flair and axial T2-weighted sequences through the cervical thoracic and lumbar spines.
FINDINGS: Normal appearances of the craniocervical junction, no Chiari malformation.
There is an ill-defined focal area of increased T2 signal within the posterior cervical cord at the C3 level, with further areas of signal change in the anterior cord at the C5-C6 level, and possibly also the C4-C5 level.
There is no focal lesions seen within the thoracic cord. There is a further small area of increased T2 and FLAIR signal just above the conus at T12 level.
The cord ends at L1.
There is a number of small hemangiomas in the L5-L4 and S2 vertebral bodies.
Opinion: no significant change compared to previous.
zinc; 8.6; (11.5 - 18.5)
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