Mitogen activated protein kinase p38 (MAPKp38):
<shortened url>1: Exp Mol Pathol. 2008 Feb;84(1):1-8. Epub 2007 Oct 17. Links
Inducible IL-23p19 expression in human microglia via p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB signal pathways.Li Y, Chu N, Hu A, Gran B, Rostami A, Zhang GX.
Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, 300 JHN Building, 900 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
Activated microglia can release a variety of proinflammatory cytokines that play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). IL-23, a novel proinflammatory cytokine, is required for the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Previously we demonstrated that IL-23 is expressed in MS lesions and that microglia are one cellular source of IL-23 in MS patients. In the present study we investigated the inducible expression and regulation of p19, a key subunit of IL-23, in human microglia. We demonstrated the inducible expression of IL-23p19 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial cells. Using signaling pathway-specific inhibitors, we showed that blocking p38 MAP kinase or NF-kappaB signaling pathway significantly reduced p19 expression in microglia. The regulatory role of p38 MAP kinase in p19 expression was further confirmed by decreased expression in microglia transduced with dominant-negative p38. We concluded that the p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling pathways play an important role in regulation of IL-23p19 expression on human microglia, and are thus potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of MS.
<shortened url>1: J Neurochem. 2007 Apr;101(2):364-76. Epub 2007 Jan 22. Links
A novel role of glia maturation factor: induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and pro-inflammatory cytokines.Zaheer A, Zaheer S, Sahu SK, Knight S, Khosravi H, Mathur SN, Lim R.
Veterans Affair Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA. email@example.com
The glia maturation factor (GMF), which was discovered in our laboratory, is a highly conserved protein predominantly localized in astrocytes. GMF is an intracellular regulator of stress-related signal transduction. We now report that the overexpression of GMF in astrocytes leads to the destruction of primary oligodendrocytes by interactions between highly purified cultures of astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. We infected astrocytes with a replication-defective adenovirus carrying the GMF cDNA. The overexpression of GMF caused the activation of p38 MAP kinase and transcription factor NF-kappaB, as well as the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA and protein in astrocytes. Small interfering RNA-mediated GMF knockdown completely blocked the GMF-dependent activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-kappaB, and enhanced expression of GM-CSF by astrocytes. Inhibition of p38 MAPK or NF-kappaB by specific inhibitors prevented GM-CSF production. The cell-free conditioned medium from overexpressing GMF astrocytes contained 320 +/- 33 pg/mL of GM-CSF, which was responsible for enhanced production and secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IP-10 by microglia. Presence of these inflammatory cytokines in the conditioned medium from microglia efficiently destroyed oligodendrocytes in culture. These results suggest that GMF-induced production of GM-CSF in astrocytes is depending on p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB activation. The GM-CSF-dependent expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokine/chemokine, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IP-10, is cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system, and as well as neurons. Our results suggest a novel pathway of GMF-initiated cytotoxicity of brain cells, and implicate its involvement in inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
looks like andrographis paniculata is also good:
<shortened url>1: Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Apr;298(1-2):49-57. Epub 2006 Nov 16. Links
Inhibitory effects of neoandrographolide on nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage.Liu J, Wang ZT, Ji LL, Ge BX.
Institute of Chinese Material Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai, 201203, P. R. China.
Activated macrophages express inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), produce excessive amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which play key roles in the processes of inflammation. Andrographis paniculata Nees is a traditional Chinese herb commonly used for treatment of infection, inflammation, and diarrhea. However, the mechanism of its therapeutic function is not well known. In the present study, the effect of neoandrographolide, one of bioactive components in A. paniculata, on iNOS-mediated NO production and COX-2-mediated PGE(2) in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated-murine macrophages was investigated. Neoandrographolide at concentrations (30-90 microM) significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the productions of NO and PGE(2) in LPS stimulated macrophages without inducing cytotoxicity. The effect of neoandrographolide also has been investigated on iNOS and COX-2 expression in activated macrophage by using RT-PCR and immunoblotting. The inhibition of NO release by neoandrographolide can be attributed to the block of iNOS mRNA transcription followed by inhibiting protein expression. However, neoandrographolide inhibited COX-2 protein expression only but without inhibiting COX-2 mRNA expression, which was involved in the inhibitory activity against the PGE(2 )overproduction. This suggests that the effect of neoandrographolide on iNOS expression may occur at the transcriptional level and the inhibition of COX-2 expression occurs at the translational level. Furthermore, we have found that the addition of neoandrographolide inhibited the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) instead of JNK, ERK1/2, or NF-kappaB. These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of neoandrographolide might result from the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibiting p38 MAPKs activation. Therefore, neoandrographolide isolated from A. paniculata could be offered as a leading compound for anti-inflammation.
<shortened url>1: Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Mar;7(3):343-50. Epub 2006 Dec 14. Links
Paeonol suppresses intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells by blocking p38, ERK and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways.Nizamutdinova IT, Oh HM, Min YN, Park SH, Lee MJ, Kim JS, Yean MH, Kang SS, Kim YS, Chang KC, Kim HJ.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.
Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), the main active compound of the traditionally used Chinese herb Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cardiovascular protective activities. We studied how the levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), one of the key molecules in the development of atherosclerosis, might be affected by paeonol in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Paeonol concentration-dependently inhibited the production of ICAM-1; it inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 translocation into the nucleus and the phosphorylation of inhibitory factor kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha). It also blocked the TNF-alpha-induced phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which are involved in regulating ICAM-1 production by TNF-alpha. Paeonol inhibited U937 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs stimulated by TNF-alpha, suggesting that it may inhibit the binding of monocytes to endothelium by regulating the production of critical adhesion molecules by TNF-alpha. The inhibitory effect of paeonol on ICAM-1 production might be mediated by inhibiting p38, ERK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, which are involved in TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 production. Thus, paeonol may be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis.
oops, I see I missed the article on astragalus!
<shortened url>1: J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 17;115(2):184-93. Epub 2007 Oct 5. Links
Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk.Ryu M, Kim EH, Chun M, Kang S, Shim B, Yu YB, Jeong G, Lee JS.
Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Republic of Korea.
Although Astragali Radix (Astragalus, AR), the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge, is widely used in oriental medicine for tonifying the immune response and improving circulation, the underlying mechanism(s) by which these effects are induced remains unclear. Here, we report that AR displays anti-inflammatory effects in zymosan air-pouch mice by reducing the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha and by decreasing the production of nitric oxide (NO). In a similar manner, AR reduces the expression of IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw 264.7 cells. We further demonstrate that AR attenuates the activity of p38 and Erk1/2 and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in LPS-treated Raw 264.7 cells. Additionally, AR interferes with the translocation of NFkappaB to the nucleus, subsequently resulting in NFkappaB-dependent transcriptional repression. Taken together, these data reveal that AR has an anti-inflammatory effect that is mediated by the MKP-1-dependent inactivation of p38 and Erk1/2 and inhibition of NFkappaB-mediated transcription. These results imply that the AR herb has a potential anti-inflammatory activity.
PMID: 17996413 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
other stuff on astragalus
<shortened url>1: Thromb Haemost. 2003 Nov;90(5):904-14. Links
Antiinflammatory activity of astragaloside IV is mediated by inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and adhesion molecule expression.Zhang WJ, Hufnagl P, Binder BR, Wojta J.
Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, University of Vienna, Austria.
The regulated expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells is a key process in the pathogenesis of inflammation. The saponin astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylcycloastragenol purified from the Chinese medical herb Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. In this study we have investigated the effect of AS-IV on cytokine-and LPS-stimulated expression of adhesion molecules in and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that AS-IV significantly reduced the adhesion promoting activity of LPS-stimulated HUVECs for polymorph-nuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the monocytic cell line THP-1. Furthermore, by using specific cell ELISAs we could show that AS-IV decreased the LPS-induced expression of E-selectin and VCAM-1 on the surface of HUVECs in a dose and time dependent manner, whereas the expression of ICAM-1 was not affected by AS-IV. AS-IV also inhibits TNFalpha-induced VCAM-1 expression. The saponin octyl-D-glucopyranoside had no effect on the LPS-induced expression of E-selectin and VCAM-1 excluding an unspecific detergent-like effect of AS-IV. Moreover, AS-IV significantly inhibited LPS- and TNFalpha-induced specific mRNA levels for E-selectin and VCAM-1. Finally, we could show that AS-IV completely abolished LPS- and TNFalpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in endothelial cells. We conclude that the ability of AS-IV to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway might be one under-lying mechanism contributing to its anti-inflammatory potential in vivo.
I think that epstein barr travels through the blood brain barrier endothelium via leukocytes
<shortened url>1: Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 Mar;151(3):519-27. Epub 2008 Jan 8. Links
Adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus-positive natural killer cell lines to cultured endothelial cells stimulated with inflammatory cytokines.Kanno H, Watabe D, Shimizu N, Sawai T.
Department of Pathology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is characterized by chronic recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms. Approximately one-fourth of CAEBV patients develop vascular lesions with infiltration of EBV-positive lymphoid cells. Furthermore, EBV-positive natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphomas often exhibit angiocentric or angiodestructive lesions. These suggest an affinity of EBV-positive NK/T cells to vascular components. In this study, we evaluated the expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines in EBV-positive NK lymphoma cell lines, SNK1 and SNK6, and examined the role of cytokines in the interaction between NK cell lines and endothelial cells. SNKs expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) at much higher levels than those in EBV-negative T cell lines. SNKs produced the larger amount of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, which caused increased expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in cultured human endothelial cells, than that from EBV-negative T cell lines. Furthermore, SNKs exhibited increased adhesion to cultured endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-alpha or interleukin (IL)-1beta, and the pretreatment of cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells with anti-VCAM-1-antibodies reduced cell adhesion. These indicate that the up-regulated expression of VCAM-1 on cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells would be important for the adhesion of EBV-positive NK cells and might initiate the vascular lesions.
<shortened url>1: Immunology. 1988 Apr;63(4):631-7. Links
Molecules mediating adhesion of T and B cells, monocytes and granulocytes to vascular endothelial cells.Prieto J, Beatty PG, Clark EA, Patarroyo M.
Department of Immunology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Leucocytes interact with vascular endothelial cells (EC), and adhesion between these two cell types in vitro is modulated by phorbol ester. Monocytes were found to display the highest basal adhesion to EC, followed by Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized normal B cells (EBV-B), T cells and granulocytes. Phorbol ester treatment increased the adhesion of all types of leucocytes, except monocytes. In the presence of this compound, monoclonal antibody 60.3 to GP90 (CD18, a leucocyte-adhesion protein which is non-covalently associated to either GP160, GP155, or GP130) was found to inhibit the adhesion of the four types of leucocytes to a considerable extent, while anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) antibody to GP160 (CD11a) inhibited the adhesion of T and B cells only. Antibody 60.1 to GP155 (CD11b) had a major inhibitory activity exclusively on granulocytes, while antibody LB-2, which recognizes a distinct adhesion molecule (GP84) and, in contrast to the previous antibodies, reacts with EC, mainly inhibited adhesion of EBV-B and did not increase the inhibition obtained with antibody 60.3 alone. Fab fragments of antibody 60.3 inhibited leucocyte adhesion more efficiently, in either the absence or presence of phorbol ester, than the intact antibody molecule. It is concluded the GP90, either alone or associated to the larger glycoproteins, mediates the adhesion in all types of leucocytes, while GP84 mediates the adhesion of the activated B cells.