Also see...Fumaric Acid and its Esters: An Emerging Treatment for Multiple SclerosisCurr Neuropharmacol. 2009 March; 7(1): 60–64.
Effect of FAE on T-Cells
One of the first observations during the application of Fumaderm® in psoriasis was the effect on T-cells. Initial studies revealed a decrease of T-cells in nearly all treated patients . This finding was well in line with an immunohistochemical study that showed a reduction of CD4+-cells by half  in the epidermal inflammatory infiltrate. Subsequent in vitro studies confirmed the capability of DMF to induce apoptosis in human T-cells . Upon analysis of the cytokine production in more detail, de Jong et al.  reported that MMF increased the production of the “TH2” cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 in stimulated T-cells without having an effect on the “TH1” cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ), the IL-2 production, or the proliferation of T-cells. In another study, stimulated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells again showed an increased secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 after treatment with MMF. Taken together, these findings suggest that FAE shift the cytokine profile from a “TH1” to a “TH2” profile. This effect of FAE on the expression of cytokines may also apply to other cell types than T-cells.