Here's something new I ran across that I thought I'd post for discussion. I knew about the virus, allergy, toxin, infectious agent, etc. theories for the cause of MS, but this one was even knew for me!
(Believe me, I'm not saying I hold an opinion that this is valid at all, just thought it might make an interesting topic for discussion and to see if anyone else had heard of this particular theory before?)
Man, MS sure is a "field for fodder", I guess! (Is that a correct saying? I wonder where I got THAT from? HAH!)
Multiple Sclerosis: A Chronic Mycotoxicosis?
by David Holland, MD
(Dr. Dave Holland is the co-author, with Doug Kaufmann, of the new book, "The Fungus Link, Volume 2." Inside this follow-up to their book Fungus Link , you'll not only learn about the dangers of antibiotics. You'll also learn about the ins and outs of natural and prescriptive antifungals. Additionally, Doug and Dave share with you the role fungi and their mycotoxins play in what are unfortunately everyday diseases such as prostatitis, ear-nose-throat disorders, weight problems (including obesity and anorexia), autoimmune diseases, hormonal disorders, neurologic diseases, hair loss, and eye problems. ...
The National Multiple Sclerosis Society, one of several non-profit organizations dealing with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) research funding and patient assistance, raised almost $74 million dollars in the fiscal year 2001. It spent $64 million, of which $54.8 million went toward program expenses, and $6.6 million was directed at fundraising efforts. Two million goes toward administrative costs. The CEO alone makes over $300,000. (1)
Still, in the 57 years of the society’s existence, no cause for MS has been assigned. I use the word “assigned” and not “found,” because I believe a cause has already been found. In our book, “The Fungus Link, Volume 2,” Doug Kaufmann and I discuss the role of fungal toxins, called mycotoxins, in the etiology of MS. The evidence brought forth by various scientists over the years and compiled in a small section of this book is quite compelling. It is so compelling that, at this point, I believe scientists will be forced into a position of proving that mycotoxins are NOT the cause of MS, a task at which, I believe, they shall not succeed.
MS is characterized by destruction of the protective sheath- called the myelin sheath- around nerves in the brain and the spinal cord. As a result, the transmission of nerve impulses to other nerves, muscles, and vital organs is interrupted. This impaired nerve function translates into symptoms such as difficulty in walking, abnormal, “pins and needles” sensations throughout the body; pain and loss of vision due to inflammation of the optic nerve, tremors, incoordination, paralysis, and impaired thinking and memory (2). In addition, muscle wasting, bladder dysfunction, fatigue, osteoporosis, and a host of other problems may develop either directly or indirectly due to this nerve damage.
Although there is a genetic predisposition toward MS, as proven in studies of twins, only a third of those that are genetically susceptible will get MS, indicating there is still an outside factor involved (3). MS is more common in those born and raised above the 37th parallel (a line extending from Newport News, VA to Santa Cruz, CA); however, if a person moves to an area of low risk (i.e. below the 40th parallel) prior to adolescence, they assume the lower risk of their new location. These last points support the idea of an environmental exposure link to the disease.
If outside causes are to blame, then Oppenheim, an early 1900’s researcher, was the closest in his assertion that MS is caused by an environmental toxin. Other researchers of his day thought that there was a defect in the blood vessels or in the glial tissues. Pierre Marie, in the late 1800’s, felt that MS was caused by an infectious agent. However, despite all of the “infection” theories that have been tested over the past 150 plus years, not one- whether bacteria, virus, Chlamydia or scrapie-like agent- has proven to be the culprit.
So, let’s apply what we already know about MS and see if we truly know the cause of MS or not. Mycotoxins are chemicals made by fungi. They are found in grains that have been contaminated with fungi and mold. Some mycotoxins are used for medicinal purposes. Antibiotics, such as penicillin and the cephalosporin drugs, are fungal metabolites- they are mycotoxins. Alcohol is a mycotoxin. Aflatoxin, the most carcinogenic substance on earth, is a mycotoxin. The most commonly contaminated crops are peanuts, corn, and wheat.
Often, other foods such as barley, apples, sorghum and rye can be contaminated as well. Some mycotoxins are produced in our body by the yeast in our intestines or vaginal tract. In one study, 3 women severely symptomatic for vaginal candidiasis were found to have vaginal fluid samples with significant levels of a mycotoxin called gliotoxin (4). From our environment, we can be exposed to mycotoxins through countless routes: ingestion, inhalation, skin contact, etc. The question is, once inside the body, can these mycotoxins damage nerves? Let’s answer that question now.
We already know that, in MS, there is a loss of molecules called sphingolipids from the white matter in the central nervous system (5). What is not well known is the fact that mycotoxins can actually disrupt sphingolipid biosynthesis (6). Specifically, gliotoxin, as we mentioned above, on a slightly larger scale can induce nerve cell death (apoptosis).
Gliotoxin is a heat stable chemical made by Aspergillus, Candida, and other species of fungi. (7). Not coincidentally, scientists have recovered a heat stable toxin from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients. In this particular study, they took the CSF from MS patients, heat-treated it to destroy any infectious germs, and then exposed it to nerve cells in a laboratory culture. What happened? The nerve cells died! They called this heat-stable toxin “gliotoxin.”
The source of gliotoxin appears to be, again, primarily from the yeast and fungi within the human body. As such, gliotoxin is less important as an agricultural scourge than are other mycotoxins such as fumonisins, made by Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi, and the penetrim D toxin made by Penicillium crustosum. Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that happen to be neurotoxic as well as carcinogenic. They are “universally present in corn and corn-based products.” ( 8 ). Penitrem mycotoxins are found in things such as moldy apple products. Penetrem D can cause tremors, convulsions, limb weakness, and ataxis (unsteady gait), “not unlike the symptoms observed in MS.” (9).
As there are different classes of MS (chronic progressive, relapsing-remitting, etc.) it may very well be that the different classes are being caused by different classes of mycotoxins. In addition, the regional differences in the prevalence of MS might be explained by the particular agricultural products that dominate the most affected areas. For example, the part of America that lies above the 37th parallel also happens to encompass the cornbelt. Remember that corn is universally contaminated with mycotoxins (7). This area is also represented by much of the wheat belt. Is this just a coincidence, or good evidence of an environmental exposure risk factor?
Let’s talk about some of the latest treatments for MS. Dr. Mercola has already stated in a previous article that most MS drugs are a waste of money (10). The new buzz on the town, however, is that statin drugs (cholesterol-lowering drugs) have proven effective in slowing the progression of MS (11-13). Their effectiveness should not surprise us, in light of the fungal/mycotoxin theory, when we also learn that statin drugs are antifungal (14).
Dr. Mercola has also mentioned in previous articles that Vitamin D as well as plain old sunlight can reduce mortality from and positively influence the immune system in MS (15,16). Other researchers have explained that the reason why these work is, once again, Vitamin D, whether taken in the form of a cod liver oil supplement or made naturally by our body from sunlight exposure, is anti-mycotoxin (14).
Finally, let’s talk about diet again. Last year a German researcher claimed that eating smoked sausage in childhood was responsible for causing multiple sclerosis later in life. (16). Dr. A.V. Costantini, retired head of the World Health Organization’s collaborating center for mycotoxins in food, helps us out here by explaining that smoked and aged meats are often contaminated with mycotoxins (18 ). Thus the cause of MS, according to these and other researchers, is right in our food.
In another of Dr. Mercola’s articles, he talked about how starving mice with an MS-like condition resulted in fewer symptoms and decreased progression of the illness (19). Why does starvation work? In our humbled opinion, it could be as simple as: the fewer foods taken in, the fewer mycotoxins that enter the body. You see, if we are following the standard, food pyramid, grain based American diet, we are consuming on average from 0.15 to 0.5mg of aflatoxin per day ( 8 ). Aflatoxin is the only regulated mycotoxin in America, so what level of exposure we have to the other, known mycotoxins in our diet that we’ve discussed is a guess, at best. So starvation diets not only deprive us of calories. They also “deprive” us of disease-causing, carcinogenic mycotoxins.
If indeed mycotoxins cause MS, then there are a number of steps one must take to minimize exposure to fungi and their mycotoxins. We just finished talking about diet. Since mycotoxins are commonly found in grain foods (7, 8 ), then it would be wise to minimize grains in our diet. Doug Kaufmann outlines his Initial Phase diet in our book, The Fungus Link, Volume 2. As well, Dr. Mercola has published his book, The No-Grain Diet, which offers equally valuable information. Secondly, we should minimize our exposure to antibiotics.
Antibiotics are, for the most part, derived from fungi and are therefore classified as mycotoxins. If we’ve taken lots of antibiotics in the past, we should attempt to correct the damage done by these by taking a good probiotic supplement. Lastly, if we have any obvious signs of fungal infection in our body, and to us, simply having MS might qualify as an obvious sign, it might behoove us to take natural or prescriptive antifungals for a period of time. Remember that gliotoxin can be made by fungi and yeast that are already in the body, not necessarily by fungi that reside in contaminated foods.
Doug and I hope that we’ve given you some insight to this “mysterious” disease of MS. It seems, according to the research we’ve pointed to, that the cause for this disease is right before our eyes. Now, we just need to apply this knowledge. Future research should be directed at treating the disease as if it were caused by fungi and their devastating mycotoxins.
The Charity Navigator. Charitynavigator.org. July 2003
Nationalmssociety.org. Sept. 2002
Murray, J. Infection as a cause of multiple sclerosis: theories abound because no one knows the answer yet. Editorials. British Medical Journal. Vol 325:1128. 16 Nov 2002
Shah, D.T, et al. In situ mycotoxin production by Candida albicans in women with vaginitis. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 1995;39(1):67-9
Harper. Review of Physiological Chemistry, 16th ed. 1977
Miller-Hjelle. PKD: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease? Emerging infectious diseases. 3(2):113-127. 1997. CDC
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Mycotoxins: Risks in Plant, Animal, and Human Systems. Task Force Report 139. Jan 2003. Ames, IA
Etzel, R. Mycotoxins. Journal of the American Medical Association. 287(4): 425-427. Jan 23/30, 2002.
http://www.iserloh.com/penitrem.html July 2003
Bouchez, C. Cholesterol drug may offer hope for MS patients. HealthScoutNews, April 2003;
Edelson, E. Cholesterol drugs may treat multiple sclerosis. HealthScoutNews. Oct. 7, 2002,
Verrengia, J. Statin drugs show M.S. promise. Associated press. Yahoo News. Nov 7, 2002
Costantini, A.V. Fungalbionics Series: Etiology and Prevention of Atherosclerosis. Johann Freidrich Oberlin Verlag. Freiburg, Germany. 1998/99
Murphy, D. German researcher claims smoked sausage linked to multiple sclerosis. Meatingplace.com. Sept. 2002
Costantini, A., et al. Prevention of Breast Cancer: Hope at Last. Fungalbionic series. Freiburg, Germany. 1998
Hmm, smoked sausage, eh? Err, what if you happen to be a life long vegetarian like me?
Bad science justified by the letters 'MD' is still bad science.
Who has never had candida, EBV, German Measles, Chickenpox or shingles. And doesn't suffer from gluten/wheat/yeast or anything else intolerance or allergy and has spent far too much money categorically finding this out.
Anyway now I know all I have to do is stop eating and all my problems are over. Starvation the new cure for MS. As I don't weigh a lot this could be a very radical solution.
You know MS is caused by a fungus. Of course, I just looked at her like
this=> and said, oh so that is what it is!!! I will have to speak to my MS
Neuro for never having told me that.
LOL, Felly....all we have to do is just quit eating and our trouble is over with.
Felly: I'm dying laughing...."just quit eating".....
Dawn: Your comment to that person was priceless!
"Foot fetishists"........I swear, I'm in tears I'm laughing so hard!
Like I said before, this was a new one on me, too, and I also came up with a million comments, but you all did MUCH better than I ever could!
Hey, it's been bad enough that I've been eating oatmeal for the last 3 months straight to get my cholesterol level down............but give up sausage, too? Now, THERE I'm drawing the line! Actually, I DO love mushrooms.........maybe that's it!
I hope everyone had a wonderful July 4th weekend!
Fungi do NOT cause MS; Mycotoxins, however--fungal by-products--are indeed highly neurotoxic and can degrade the sheath of the nerve. Hmmm, sounds like....MS!
I got my quackery degree from an American Medical School and have studied mycotoxins and fungi (without the support of pharmaceutical companies) for about the past 10 years. I also was board-certified, Family Practice, in an American (quack) Medical Hospital.
What did that get me? Very little information about nutrition and nothing about fungi. In fact, fungi and are the "least studied topic in medical schools" (Annaissie, 2003, Medical Mycology) (<--another quack book).
Sure you can't "cure" MS just by avoiding mycotoxins, but you can prevent further damage by knowing what's causing the problem in the first place. www.knowthecause.com
-dave holland, MD
The Toxic Effects Of Fungal Exposure
By Susan Lillard-Roberts
Once one is tested and diagnosed with mycotoxicosis, one should begin to try to assess the extent of the fungal infection and how impaired, if any, one may be. This is exceptionally important as most physicians are inexperienced in dealing with this illness, and finding out as much as one can would possibly most helpful in describing symptoms and effective treatments.
Fungi have long been known to affect human well being in various ways, including disease of essential crop plants, decay of stored foods with possible concomitant production of mycotoxins, superficial and systemic infection of human tissues, and disease associated with immune stimulation such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic pneumonitis. The spores of a large number of important fungi are less than 5 µm aerodynamic diameter, and therefore are able to enter the lungs. They also may contain significant amounts of mycotoxins. Diseases associated with inhalation of fungal spores can include toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, tremors, chronic fatigue syndrome, kidney failure, and cancer.
Exposure to molds has become a significant health risk to an increasing number of workers in various occupations throughout the nations. Fungal antigens are able to cause occupational asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). In recent years, an increasing incidence of mold-induced diseases has been encountered in moldy contaminated water-damaged buildings. This has occurred both in homes and workplaces. Symptomatic persons occupying moisture problem buildings may develop asthma, rhinitis, ODTS and HP.
Many allergists, often obsolete on today's changing medicine and the new tests that are available to determine pathogenic mold and often mistake it for allergies since they are easily disguised to the unskilled eye. There are, however, distinct initial differences due to inhalation of these mycotoxins can have such a profound shock on the body, and mounting evidence to back up the fact that there is a direct correlation to other serious illnesses. The difference between a good physician and an inept one is one who will listen intently to what you are saying and ask questions, rather than write prescriptions for symptoms and not hear what you fully have say as far as what the underlying cause may be.
When the World Health Organization convened in 2002, Dr. A.V. Costantini, head of the organization; an internist who claims to be a simple country doctor, listed fourteen diseases wherein fungal (mold & Candida Albicans) forms of microorganisms have been found include the following: atherosclerosis, cancer, AIDS, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, gout, Crohn's disease, Multiple sclerosis, hyperactivity syndrome, infertility, psoriasis, cirrhosis of the liver, Alzheimer's disease, Scleroderma, Raynaud's Disease, Sarcoidosis, kidney stones, Amyloidosis, Vasculitis, and Cushing's Disease.
Dr. Costantini believes that the concept of "auto-immune" diseases contains a fatal flaw, because no successful species can develop a system of defense which attacks itself. Antibodies that are measured in the blood stream and which imply an autoimmune condition are actually antibodies against ubiquitin, a substance that is present in many species including that of fungi.
Antifungal, anti-mycoplasmic treatments according to Dr. Costantini, by treating various so-called auto-immune diseases with antifungals, including Systemic lupus erythematosus and lichen sclerosis, the disease can possibly be halted. However, many species have become so virulent that treatment may often have to be combined with diet, vitamin/enzymes, and other non-traditional treatments. There has also been question lately if nano bacteria has been playing into the part of the part of patients who have been having relapses as there has always been a balance of fungi and bacteria in the body before infection occurred.
Among the traditional drugs are found Lovastatin, Griseofulvin, Ketaconazole, Neomycin, Fibrates, Tetracycline and others, some of which may also be effective against Lupus. However, these should all be administered by a health professional, with due consideration for their adverse effects, including that of killing off beneficial microbes, lactobacillus acidophilus, in the intestinal tract.
Growth of commonly occurring filamentous fungi in foods may result in production of toxins known as mycotoxins, which can cause a variety of ill effects in humans, from allergic responses to immunosuppression and cancer. The most dangerous mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, trichothecenes and zearalenone. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens and, in association with hepatitis B virus, are responsible for many thousands of human deaths per annum, mostly in non-industrialized tropical countries. Ochratoxin A is a carcinogen, and has caused urinary tract cancer and kidney damage in people from northern and eastern Europe. Fumonisins appear to be the cause of oesophageal cancer in southern Africa, parts of China and elsewhere. Trichothecenes are highly immunosuppressive and zearalenone causes oestrogenic effects in animals and man (see hidden mold for more information).
The important thing is to study these after effects of fungal exposure and understand the symptoms. furthermore, comprehending your doctor and what their role in this process is in this whole array of healing is very important. See medicine and doctors for further information.
This site is not intended to give medical advice. Seek the advice of a professional for diagnosis, medication, treatment options, and complete knowledge of any illness. The opinions expressed here are exclusively my personal opinions do not necessarily reflect my peers or professional affiliates. The information here does not reflect professional advice and is not intended to supersede the professional advice of others.
Cancer and mold toxins: another way indoor mold harms humans
Contributed by Alexandra
Thursday, 04 August 2005
Cancer and mold toxins: another way indoor mold harms humans
Dr. Wang and Groopman from the Environmental Health Sciences Department at Johns Hopkins, published a useful article on the effects of mold toxins on DNA published in Mutation Research -- a leading cancer journal. They said clearly:
Mycotoxins are toxic fungal metabolites which are structurally diverse, common contaminants of the ingredients of animal feed and human food. To date, mycotoxins with carcinogenic potency in experimental animal models include aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin, fumonisins, zearalenone, and some Penicillium toxins. Most of these carcinogenic mycotoxins are genotoxic agents with the exception of fumonisins, which is currently believed to act by disrupting the signal transduction pathways of the target cells. Aflatoxin B1 [is] a category I known human carcinogen and the most potent genotoxic agent, is mutagenic in many model systems and produces chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, sister chromatid exchange, unscheduled DNA synthesis, and chromosomal strand breaks, as well as forms adducts in rodent and human cells....More strikingly, the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and development of human hepatocellular carcinoma ... was demonstrated by [other] studies...
Mutat Res. 1999 Mar 8;424(1-2):167-81.
Aflatoxin Found In Human Breast Cancer Tissue
Harrison et al. (1993) examined human breast cancer tissue for evidence of the presence of aflatoxin, a recognized potent carcinogenic mycotoxin. The researchers examined human DNA from a variety of tissues and organs to identify and quantify aflatoxin DNA-adducts. Such adducts are considered to be proof of the mycotoxin's presence in a particular tissue. (These researchers had already proved the value of this method in the detection of aflatoxin-DNA adducts in tissue from a case of acute aflatoxin poisoning in Southeast Asia.)
DNA from normal and tumorous tissue obtained from patients with cancer of the breast was examined. Tumor tissues had higher aflatoxin-adduct levels than did normal tissue from the same individual.
The result of this study is that it verifies the presence of carcinogenic aflatoxin within the cancer tissue and thus implicates aflatoxin as a cause of breast cancer.
Cyclosporin (A Mycotoxin) Causes Breast Cancer In Humans
Cyclosporin is a fungal derived drug. It is classified as a mycotoxin in the mycology literature (Betina ).
Vogt et al. (1990) reported the occurrence of de novo malignant tumors occurring in 598 renal transplant recipients who were immunosupressed with cyclosporin.
Eighteen of 598 patients receiving their first renal graft along with cyclosporin treatment between 1981 and 1986 developed a malignancy at a mean interval of 33 months. The cyclosporin-induced cancers included breast cancer.
Escribano-Patino et al. (1995) reported the occurrence of breast cancer as a complication of cyclosporin use in their series of kidney transplant recipients.
Penn and First (1986) reported 88 tumors in eighty-seven organ transplant recipients after the use of cyclosporin. Malignancies appeared an average of 14 months after the cyclosporin treatment. There was a surprising frequency of endocrine-related malignancies (ovarian, testicular and breast) among these malignancies.
Aflatoxin Induces Malignant Changes In Human Breast Cells
Eldridge et al. (1992) noted that some environmental chemicals are stored in human breast fat which are documented to be rodent mammary carcinogens. These researchers stressed the importance of determining the cancer potential of environmental agents in this key target tissue.
An assay was developed for detecting cancer potential using cultures of normal human breast epithelial cells derived from 5 different women. A positive response was observed with aflatoxin.
The conclusion of this study was that aflatoxin causes normal human breast cells to become cancerous.
Could Moldy Cheese Causes Breast Cancer?
One sample study is by Le et al. (1986), in a French case-control study of 1,010 breast cancer cases and 1,950 controls with nonmalignant diseases; found that breast cancer was found to be associated with increased frequency of mold-fermented cheese consumption.
Oxalic Acid (A Mycotoxin) Found In Breast Cancer Lesions
Going et al. (1990) found that weddellite (calcium oxalate) crystals are present in calcifications found in the breast tissue of patients with breast cancer. Calcium oxalate crystals are formed when calcium binds with oxalic acid. In human and animal systems, this is a protective process which considerably reduces the severe toxicity of oxalic acid. Oxalic acid is a powerful corrosive agent and oxalate salts are widely used for their cleaning and bleaching properties!
Oxalic acid happens to be a mycotoxin which can be produced by a number of different fungal species. Some fungi produce such large amounts of oxalic acid that they are used for commercial production of the chemical.
Aspergillus niger fungal infection in human lungs produces large amounts of oxalic acid which is extremely toxic to the blood vessels and which may cause fatal pulmonary hemorrhages. Consequently, oxalic acid (calcium oxalate crystals) in the sputum or lung specimens of patients is also an indication of an Aspergillus infection of the lung. These calcium oxalate crystals are the same as the calcium oxalate found in breast cancers.
The presence of oxalates in the breast is indicative of the presence of fungi interwoven within the stages of breast cancer development. Since humans do not make oxalic acid themselves, this is an appropriate conclusion.
Breast Oxalate Calcifications In Mammograms
Thomas et al. (1993) examined calcifications found in breast mammograms and evaluated their relationship to the risk of subsequent breast cancer. The presence, morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on baseline mammograms of 686 women who developed breast cancer over a 7- to 10-year follow-up period were compared with those of 1,357 controls who remained cancer free. It was found that there was a significant correlation between such calcifications and subsequent development of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Calcifications Decrease With Tamoxifen (Antifungal) Treatment
Taylor and Georgian-Smith (1994) reported the regression of breast cancer in four patients who had been treated with tamoxifen. The patients were closely monitored with physical examination and mammography for a minimum of 2 years.
In all cases, the features of malignancy which were seen on mammograms regressed. These results were documented by a decrease in the number of calcifications and in the size of spiculated masses. These results suggest that these breast calcifications are dynamic in nature, being able to regress as effective treatment reduces the cancer.
The presence of oxalate calcifications in the breasts of virtually every patient with breast cancer, and their subsequent regression as a result of treatment with the antifungal agent tamoxifen, points to the strong possibility that there is a fungal role in this cancer. There have even been reports of fungal cells growing out of cancer cells. The existence of a viable fungal sub-forms--with its DNA co-mixed with a human's own DNA--could well explain the bizarre appearance of the DNA in cancer cells. Support for such a "science fiction" type scenario is found in the observation that a lectin staining procedure, used to find "invisible" fungi in tissue specimens, happens to identify breast cancer cells. Normal cells do not stain with these same lectin staining procedures.
The lectin stain is also taken up by strange multinucleated giant cells which suggests that these cells may, in fact, be fungal cells. This could explain the presence of oxalates in breast cancer tissue, a metabolite produced by fungi and not by humans. It might also help explain how breast cancer is caused by a number of fungal-fermented foods, particularly those made with Baker's or Brewer's Yeast (both being Saccharomyces cerevisiae), known producers of uric acid which degrades to oxalic acid (Costantini ).
Baker's yeast is used to make bread, a documented cause of breast cancer in Japanese women. Brewer's yeast is used to make many alcoholic beverages, all of which are known to cause breast cancer in every country where the connection has been investigated, a fact which is well documented. Other research some feel beer and wine mycotoxins increase breast cancer above chance.
T-2 Toxin Causes Breast Tumors
Schoental et al. (1979) reported that breast cancers were induced in rats which were dosed with T-2 Toxin.
T-2 Toxin is a Fusarium toxin frequently found in the human food chain. The fact that T-2 Toxin induced breast cancer in an animal model is most significant, for this cancer occurs so often in humans.
Furthermore, antibodies against Fusarium fungi are frequently found in human blood. These fungi and their toxins are the most frequently encountered contaminants found in animal feed and human foods. See also Saito (1971) and Corrado (1971), both of whom induced breast cancer in mice using moldy rice and its extracts.
Ochratoxin Causes Breast Tumors
Fibroadenomas in the mammary gland were found in over half of a group of female mice which were dosed with ochratoxin (Boorman ). In humans, fibroadenoma is a documented risk factor for breast cancer (Dupont et al. ).
Ochratoxin Causes Breast Fibroadenomas
Huff (1991) investigated the carcinogenicity of ochratoxin, a naturally occurring mycotoxin of the fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which was studied in three strains of mice and in one strain of rats.
It was found that fibroadenomas of the mammary glands were induced by ochratoxin administration. In humans, fibroadenoma is a documented long-term risk factor for breast cancer (Dupont et al. ).
Penicillic Acid/Patulin Cause Breast Adenomas And Breast Sarcomas
Penicillic acid was found to induce mammary adenomas, as well as local sarcomas and fibrosarcomas in mice and rats. Patulin was also reported to cause mammary adenomas in mice and rats (Dickens and Jones , Dickens ). See also Ciegler et al. (1971).
Verrucarin Induced Breast Tumors
Jodczyk (1984) was able to induce breast tumors in mice by exposing them to a derivative of the mycotoxin verrucarin E.
Moldy Rice Extract Causes Breast Cancer
Mammary cancers (breast cancers) were induced by feeding an alcohol extract of moldy rice to animals (Corrado ). See also Saito (1971).
This is hardly a complete presentation of this topic, but it is merely offered to allow reflection on the troubling action of some mycotoxins.
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I would like to thank the editorial research of three World Health Organization Scholars for the sample references above:
A.V. COSTANTINI, M.D.
Head, World Health Organization (WHO)
Collaborating Center For Mycotoxins In Food
HEINRICH WIELAND, M.D.
Medical Director, World Health Organization (WHO)
Collaborating Center For Mycotoxins in Food
LARS 1. QVICK, M.D., Ph.D.
Co-Medical Director, World Health Organization (WHO)
Collaborating Center For Mycotoxins In Food