Cerebrovascular pattern improved by ozone autohemotherapy: an entropy-based study on multiple sclerosis patients
Ozone major autohemotherapy is effective in reducing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but its effects on brain are still not clear. In this work, we have monitored the changes in the cerebrovascular pattern of MS patients and normal subjects during major ozone autohemotherapy by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as functional and vascular technique. NIRS signals are analyzed using a combination of time, time-frequency analysis and nonlinear analysis of intrinsic mode function signals obtained from empirical mode decomposition technique. Our results show that there is an improvement in the cerebrovascular pattern of all subjects indicated by increasing the entropy of the NIRS signals. Hence, we can conclude that the ozone therapy increases the brain metabolism and helps to recover from the lower activity levels which is predominant in MS patients.
Medical ozone promotes Nrf2 phosphorylation reducing oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in multiple sclerosis patient
Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple sclerosis (MS). Different drugs have been used in the clinical practice, however, there is not a completely effective treatment. Due to its potential therapeutic action, medical ozone represents a promising approach for neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to address the role of ozone therapy on the cellular redox state in MS patients. Ozone (20μg/ml) was administered three times per week during a month by rectal insufflation. The effect of ozone therapy on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation was addressed by spectrophotometric and immunoenzymatic assays. Furthermore, we investigated the action of ozone on CK2 expression and Nrf2 phosphorylation by western blotting analysis. Medical ozone significantly improved (P < 0.05) the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the levels of cellular reduced glutathione. In accordance, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of oxidative damage on lipids and proteins was observed in ozone-treated patients. As well, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β were lower after ozone treatment. Ozone therapy incremented the CK2 expression together with Nrf2 phosphorylation in mononuclear cells of MS patients. These findings suggest that ozone´s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects might be partially associated with an induction of Nrf2 phosphorylation and activation. These results provide new insights on the molecular events modulated by ozone, and pointed out ozone therapy as a potential therapeutic alternative for MS patients.