all things magnesium

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jimmylegs
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study: low mag increases mortality risk assoc. w low vit D3

Post by jimmylegs » Tue Jan 17, 2017 3:29 pm

think we have some sentence fragments muddying this abstract a bit, but for now, another piece of the puzzle at least:
The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and risk of disease death in men: modification by magnesium intake
http://link.springer.com/article/10.100 ... 015-0006-9
Low vitamin D status increases the risk of death. Magnesium plays an essential role in vitamin D metabolism and low magnesium intake may predispose to vitamin D deficiency and potentiate the health problems. We investigated whether magnesium intake modifies the serum 25(OH)D3 concentration and its associations with mortality in middle-aged and older men.
We included 1892 men aged 42–60 years without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline in 1984–1989 from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.
Serum 25(OH)D3 was measured with the high-performance liquid chromatography using coulometric electrode array detection. Magnesium intake was assessed with 4-day food recording. Deaths were ascertained by a computer linkage to the national cause of death register. Deaths due accidents and suicides were excluded.
Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the associations. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death in the lowest (<32.1 nmol/L) versus the highest (>49.4 nmol/L) serum 25(OH)D3 tertile was 1.31 (95 % CI 1.07–1.60, Ptrend = 0.01).
Stratified by the magnesium intake, the higher risk was observed only in the lower magnesium intake median (<414 mg/day); HR = 1.60 (95 % CI 1.19–2.13, Ptrend = 0.002) in the lowest versus the highest 25(OH)D3 tertile, whereas the corresponding HR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.75–1.36, Ptrend = 0.63) in the higher magnesium intake median, P for interaction = 0.08.
In this cohort of middle-aged and older men low serum 25(OH)D3 concentration was associated with increased risk of death mainly in those with lower magnesium intake.
pretty sucky vit d3 averages in there. need a closer look at the magnesium groups. when i have time, will dig into the full text, if i can, to see if there's better clarity available.
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study: high dietary mag may reduce risk of hypertension

Post by jimmylegs » Wed Jan 25, 2017 8:05 am

excerpt from an outgoing weekend email:

"
Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Incident Hypertension Among Middle-Aged and Older US Women in a 10-Year Follow-Up Study
"To assess the hypothesis that magnesium intake is beneficial in the primary prevention of hypertension, 28,349 female United States health professionals aged ≥45 years participating in the Women’s Health Study (WHS), who initially reported normal blood pressure (systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, no history of hypertension or antihypertensive medications), were prospectively studied. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate magnesium intake. During a median follow-up of 9.8 years, 8,544 women developed incident hypertension. After adjustment for age and randomized treatment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with the risk for developing hypertension; women in the highest quintile (median 434 mg/day) had a decreased risk for hypertension (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81 to 0.93, p for trend <0.0001) compared with those in the lowest quintile (median 256 mg/day)." ... blah blah blah statistics ... "In conclusion, the results suggest that higher intake of dietary magnesium may have a modest effect on the development of hypertension in women."
so, digging in on this abstract, some math games. we know daily amount should be 7-10mg/kg/day

let's say the higher intake quintile is going for 10mg/kg/day, that means going by the median intake that they weigh 43 kg or 94 lbs or 6.7 stone. so that's not going to be a very realistic assumption i don't think.

now let's say they were only going for 7mg/kg/day, that makes that median group 62 kg or 140 lbs or 10 stone.

so if 10 stone is what we'll consider a reasonable weight for an average middle aged woman, that means only the top 10% in the study above (i'm thinking 10% because it's those above median for the highest quintile or 20%) of female health care professionals were getting even up to the low end of daily magnesium intake recommendations.

So 90% of female health care pros don't meet the minimum mag intake requirements, and yet a chunk of those made it in to the analysis of mag's effect on blood pressure by virtue of at least being in the top 20%. i think that by including the participants in the bottom half of that upper quintile, ie a bunch of people with below optimal mag intake, that the researchers weakened the observable impact of magnesium intake on blood pressure in their analysis, and i suspect that's likely part of the reason why they came out with a 'modest' effect.

ps i just dug into the full text and the absolute highest single daily mag intake was 470mg so if that individual was going for the 10mg/kg/day they're 47kg or 104 lbs or 7.4 stone. if they're going for 7mg/kg/d they're 67 kg or about 150 lbs or 10.6 stone. not too likely that many ladies in this study were actually hitting that 7-10mg/kg range properly.

and yet, from the study results, this:
"The median intake of magnesium was 330 mg/day for our cohort of middle-aged women, close to the recommended dietary allowance of 320 mg/day for adult women.17 "
great RDA, public health department...

as for the blood pressure side of this one, and this is why i wanted into the full text mostly, in the upper quintile you do see a trend of more subjects in the healthier lower ranges for both systolic (ie up to 119) and diastolic (ie up to 74). bet it would be even better if more ppl were getting a proper intake!"
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study: magnesium effective and safe for PMS

Post by jimmylegs » Fri Jan 27, 2017 7:03 pm

LOL don't think i had actually seen this study.

pro tip: you don't need this product. before i even knew how to keep my dietary intake topped up, plain old off the shelf mag sorted out my lifelong agony, and long before i even figured out magnesium glycinate.

Pilot Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a Modified-Release Magnesium ... for the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome
http://link.springer.com/article/10.216 ... 7010-00004
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study: nutrient interactions: does low mag interact with D3

Post by jimmylegs » Thu Feb 16, 2017 9:55 am

had missed this one earlier. it's past time people started paying more attention to this issue in the academic literature. glad this article exists.
Rosanoff, A., Dai, Q., & Shapses, S. A. (2016). Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 7(1), 25-43.
http://advances.nutrition.org/content/7/1/25.full.pdf
Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2–2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios <1.7 and >2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg <1.7) showed increased risks of CVD. Oral vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study.
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study: Mg deficiency and excess vit D3 effects on swine arte

Post by jimmylegs » Sun Mar 05, 2017 6:34 am

Effects of a dietary magnesium deficiency and excess vitamin D3 on swine coronary arteries
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2159962
"The effect of a moderate magnesium (Mg) deficiency on coronary arteries of 61 swine, fed various levels of vitamin D3, was studied by light and electron microscopy.
The effect of subnormal Mg intake on vitamin D3-induced intimal lesions of the arteries showed a trend towards increased damage.
The degree of cell degeneration and intimal thickening, which was induced by high vitamin D intakes, was as great in swine whose diet was low in Mg and moderately high in vitamin D, as it was in those on twice as much vitamin D.
Also, the degree of arterial calcification was intensified by inadequate Mg intake at the two higher vitamin D intakes
.
Present findings indicate that suboptimal dietary Mg, in combination with an excess of vitamin D, has an additive effect in the initiation of ultrastructural changes in the coronary arteries. Extension of the study is indicated to ascertain the extent to which further reduction of Mg intake can potentiate vitamin-D-induced coronary lesions."
eep wonder what i might have done to my arteries after yrs of high d3 and secondary mag depletion :S
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study: Genotoxic Effects of Magnesium Deficiency

Post by jimmylegs » Wed Mar 08, 2017 2:42 pm

Genotoxic Effects of Magnesium Deficiency in the Cardiovascular System and their Relationships to Cardiovascular Diseases and Atherogenesis
full text: http://bit.ly/2m0c9UL
from intro:
Disturbances in diets are known to promote lipid deposition and accelerate the growth and transformation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells in the vascular walls of blood vessels and promote vascular and cardiac dysfunctions of several types; e.g., atherosclerosis, heart rhythm disturbances, decreases in cardiac ejection of blood, decreased force of ventricular and atrial contractility, decreases in arterial blood pressure, diminished venous return to the heart, cardiac tamponade, hypertension, strokes, sudden-cardiac death, myocardial infarctions, etc. [5-7].
A number of epidemiologic studies in North America and Europe have shown that people consuming Western-type diets are low in magnesium(Mg) content (i.e., 30-65% of the RDA for Mg) [7-11]. Most of these diets in the U.S.A. show that 60-80% of Americans are consuming 185-235 mg/day of Mg [6,10].
In 1900, in contrast, Americans were consuming 450-550 mg/day of Mg [6,8].
Using sensitive and newly designed specific Mg2+ ion selective electrodes, our laboratories demonstrated that patients with hypertension, IHD, cardiac failure, strokes, diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, pregnant women with gestational diabetes, renal-induced vascular changes (associated with elevated serum cholesterol), preeclampsia, hemorrhage, sickle cell anemia in children (and adults), and atherosclerosis exhibit significant reductions in serum/plasma/whole blood levels of ionized, but not total blood levels of Mg [6,8,18,40-62]. In addition, our laboratories have also shown that dietary deficiency in rabbits and rats causes vascular remodeling concomitant with atherogenesis (i.e., arteriolar wall hypertrophy and alterations in the matrices of the vascular walls) and hypertension
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for those about to rock..

Post by jimmylegs » Wed Mar 08, 2017 5:31 pm

take magnesium?! i was looking for something else but ok.. noted. lol

Oral magnesium intake reduces permanent hearing loss induced by noise exposure
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 0994900361

Introduction: Following animal experiments where correlations were observed between serum magnesium level and noise-induced permanent hearing threshold shifts (NIPTS), we tested the prophylactic effect of magnesium in human subjects exposed to hazardous noise.

Methods: Subjects were 300 young, healthy, and normal-hearing recruits who underwent 2 months of basic military training. This training necessarily included repeated exposures to high levels of impulse noises while using ear plugs. During this placebo-controlled, double-blind study, each subject received daily an additional drink containing either 6.7 mmol (167 mg) magnesium aspartate or a similar quantity of placebo (Na-aspartate).

Results: NIPTS was significantly more frequent and more severe in the placebo group than in the magnesium group, especially in bilateral damages. NIPTS was negatively correlated to the magnesium content of blood red cells but especially to the magnesium mononuclear cells. Long-term additional intake of a small dose of oral magnesium was not accompanied by any notable side effect.

Concluslon: This study may introduce a significant natural agent for the reduction of hearing damages in noise-exposed population.
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Re: all things magnesium

Post by jimmylegs » Thu Mar 09, 2017 5:46 am

Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/9/5388/htm
Dietary surveys of people in Europe and in the United States still reveal that intakes of magnesium are lower than the recommended amounts [20,21,22]. Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have shown that people consuming Western-type diets are low in magnesium content, i.e. <30%–50% of the RDA for magnesium. It is suggested that the dietary intakes of magnesium in the United States have been declining over the last 100 years from about 500 mg/day to 175–225 mg/day. This is likely a result of the increasing use of fertilizers and processed foods [5,9,22,23,24].

In healthy individuals, magnesium serum concentration is closely maintained within the physiological range. The normal reference range for the magnesium in blood serum is 0.76–1.15 mmol/L [7,16,17,18,19].
According to many magnesium researchers, the appropriate lower reference limit of the serum magnesium concentration should be 0.85 mmol/L, especially for patients with diabetes [17,18,52,53]. For example, in the NHANES I study the reference interval for serum magnesium was determined in 15,820 individuals between the ages of 18 and 74 years. The results of this study identified the reference interval as 0.75 mmol/L to 0.955 mmol/L with a mean concentration of 0.85 mmol/L[54]. In a European study, magnesium deficiency was determined clinically and compared with the serum magnesium concentration. It was found that in individuals with serum magnesium level of 0.70 mmol/L, 90% of the individuals had clinical magnesium deficiency and at a cut off magnesium level of 0.75 mmol/L, 50% of individuals had clinical magnesium deficiency. At a cut off level of 0.80 mmol/L, 10% of individuals had clinical magnesium deficiency and at a cut off of 0.90 mmol/L, only 1% of the individuals had clinical magnesium deficiency [55].

so aiming higher than 0.90 would be wise to keep clear of whatever the study above considers clinical evidence of deficiency... considering that older studies recommend at least 0.95 and studies examining 'healthy controls' in particular, average serum levels can be still higher.
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1988 review: RBC vs serum mag levels

Post by jimmylegs » Sun Mar 12, 2017 6:58 am

Magnesium Metabolism
A Review With Special Reference to the Relationship Between Intracellular Content and Serum Levels (1988)

full text pdf https://bit.ly/2EoPSwo
Magnesium (Mg++) is a ubiquitous element in nature, playing a role in photosynthesis and many metabolic functions in humans. All enzymatic reactions that involve adenosine triphosphate have an absolute requirement for Mg++. Levels of Mg++ are controlled by the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract and appear closely linked to calcium, potassium, and sodium metabolism. The clinical manifestations and causes of abnormal Mg++ status are protean. Testing for altered Mg++ homeostasis is problematic. Serum levels, which are those generally measured, reflect only a small part of the total body content of Mg++. The intracellular content can be low, despite normal serum levels in a person with clinical Mg++ deficiency. Future directions in research related to intracellular content of Mg++ are discussed. Treatment of altered Mg++ status depends on the clinical setting and may include the addition of a potassium/Mg++ —sparing drug to an existing diuretic regimen. Guidelines for therapy are given.
so serum 'normal' doesn't automatically reflect a healthy, magnesium replete situation, got it.

full text elaborates: 'signs of magnesium deficiency occur with normal or minimally low serum levels'

small serum differences can make a pretty large subjective difference.

there is interesting later research which documents the gradual disappearance of mag deficit symptoms as subjects' serum mg levels climb higher *still within the serum mag reference range mind you*.

either way, whether you test serum or RBC mag you still end up having to interpret where you sit within a poorly defined reference range. serum mag is cheaper...
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Re: all things magnesium

Post by jimmylegs » Thu Mar 16, 2017 2:56 pm

would be interesting to see the full text on this one - esp what the d3 dose was:

A Case of Chronic Hypomagnesemia in a Cancer Survivor
M Velimirovic, JC Ziperstein, AZ Fenves - Hospital Practice, 2017 - Taylor & Francis
... Her medication list included folic acid, calcium, and vitamin D3 supplementation, levothyroxine, a multivitamin, docusate, fludrocortisone, and midodrine for ... was repleted with both IV and PO formulations, and she was discharged on a standing dose of oral magnesium. ...
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interesting 1961 rat study: magnesium link to temperature sensitivity?

Post by jimmylegs » Sun Apr 02, 2017 12:55 pm

from an old rat study, an unexpected tidbit:
The requirement and tissue distribution of magnesium in the rat as influenced by environmental temperature and dietary calcium. (1961)
https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abs ... 9611404176
The effects of Ca levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% in the diet, environmental temperatures of 10° and 23°C and duration of experiment of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks were studied in 522 weanling male rats given 20, 80, 175, 285, 360, 420 and 510 p.p.m. Mg at each Ca level. The P content of all diets was 0.4%.
Signs of magnesium deficiency appeared within 3 to 5 days in rats on the lowest Mg intake. For maximum weight gain the average requirement was calculated to be 115 p.p.m. An increase in the concentration of Ca linearly increased the Mg requirement, which was 100, 116 and 130 p.p.m. at the rising Ca levels; environmental temperature in the range studied had no effect.
For maintaining " normal " serum magnesium level an average of 365 p.p.m. was necessary, or 285, 399 and 413 p.p.m. at the 3 Ca levels. The corresponding maximum serum Mg values were 2.49, 2.29 and 2.30 mg per 100 ml " Normal " Mg levels in bone ash were maintained by an average of 288 p.p.m. in the diet. Temperature affected the requirement so estimated, which was 221 p.p.m. at 10° and 354 p.p.m. at 23°C. Varying calcium levels and duration of the experiment also influenced the requirement based on bone values, which was 264, 281 and 318 p.p.m. for the 3 Ca levels and 207, 258, 320 and 325 p.p.m. after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The finding that a low temperature reduced the concentration of Mg required in the diet to maintain " normal " bone Mg was explained by the fact that at the lower temperature, total feed and hence Mg intake was 35% greater than at the higher, although skeletal growth was no greater. On the diet with 20 p.p.m. Mg 80% of the Mg in the femur of these rats could be lost, while Ca was still being laid down.
Among the soft tissues, the kidneys showed a rapid change, for within 7 days of the beginning of the experiment there was a rise in the ash content on the three lowest levels of Mg, and calcification occurred although Mg content was unchanged. In heart and skeletal muscle Ca was higher and Mg lower in rats on low Mg intakes.
i could see that potentially translating over to humans pretty readily; if eating less in hot weather, needing to make sure food choices are the most mag-loaded (or nutrient dense in general) available :) one day will revisit to see if i can dig up details on the signs that emerged after 3 days on the lowest mag diet.
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2017 study: desalinated water = lower serum mag

Post by jimmylegs » Fri Apr 07, 2017 4:21 pm

Seawater desalination and serum magnesium concentrations in Israel
http://jwh.iwaponline.com/content/15/2/296
With increasing shortage of fresh water globally, more countries are consuming desalinated seawater (DSW). In Israel >50% of drinking water is now derived from DSW. Desalination removes magnesium, and hypomagnesaemia has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Presently the impact of consuming DSW on body magnesium status has not been established. We quantified changes in serum magnesium in a large population based study (n = 66,764), before and after desalination in regions consuming DSW and in regions where DSW has not been used. In the communities that switched to DSW in 2013, the mean serum magnesium was 2.065 ± 0.19 mg/dl before desalination and fell to 2.057 ± 0.19 mg/dl thereafter (p < 0.0001). In these communities 1.62% of subjects exhibited serum magnesium concentrations ≤1.6 mg/dl between 2010 and 2013. This proportion increased by 24% between 2010–2013 and 2015–2016 to 2.01% (p = 0.0019). In contrast, no such changes were recorded in the communities that did not consume DSW. Due to the emerging evidence of increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with hypomagnesaemia, it is vital to consider re-introduction of magnesium to DSW.
now if only they were using 2.3 mg/dl as the break point, they'd probably have a more realistic sense of the magnitude of the issue... 1.6 mg/dl is a pretty bad number... :S
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Re: 2017 study: desalinated water = lower serum mag

Post by lyndacarol » Fri Apr 07, 2017 5:49 pm

Just a couple nights ago, my husband and I watched an episode of the series Parched on the National Geographic Channel. It focused on the seawater desalination in Israel – something that we knew nothing about.

There was no mention of desalination removing magnesium.

By the way, I have read somewhere recently that reverse osmosis also removes magnesium.

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Re: 2017 study: desalinated water = lower serum mag

Post by NHE » Fri Apr 07, 2017 7:47 pm

lyndacarol wrote:By the way, I have read somewhere recently that reverse osmosis also removes magnesium.
Yes. Reverse osmosis water has such low ion concentration that it can leach minerals from your body. It also tastes pretty flat.

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Re: 2017 study: desalinated water = lower serum mag

Post by jimmylegs » Sat Apr 08, 2017 4:43 am

RO, and they also have to remove mag from standard tap water too, so that it doesn't clog up the pipes with deposits. i remember WAY back talking that over with cheer, and she commented at the time that she'd been brought up on well water and jeff on city water. also, recall thx's improvements after switching up a years-long RO water routine. http://bit.ly/2jyBRDh in reviewing old pm chats from 2014 i found a note i sent to thx from the mgwater site, to the effect that fluoride in water also ties up magnesium. i had forgotten about that little twist. i haven't been viewing my mag intake as in part a compensation for ubiquitous water *additives*. had been thinking primarily of mag as a way to address a *gap*.
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