https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 4998001099
There is evidence that copper and zinc have pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties, respectively, so that their imbalance may be expected to condition oxidative stress status. Oxidative stress is relevant in aging and in age-related degenerative diseases. In this study, blood content of copper, zinc, and ceruloplasmin as well as of lipid peroxides were investigated in 81 healthy and 62 disabled octo-nonagenarians affected by chronic degenerative diseases, and in 81 healthy adults. Serum copper/zinc ratio and ceruloplasmin were significantly higher in the elderly than in the healthy adults. Moreover, all these parameters were significantly higher in the disabled than in the healthy elderly. Notably, the increased copper/zinc ratio found in healthy elderly was due to high copper values, whereas in the disabled, both high copper and low serum zinc concentrations were present. The copper/zinc ratio was significantly and positively related to systemic oxidative stress status in all groups. The higher the serum copper/zinc ratio the higher the lipid peroxides plasma content. We conclude that there is a strict relationship between copper/zinc ratio and systemic oxidant burden. Moreover, advanced age and, particularly, advanced age-related chronic degenerative diseases are associated with a significant increase in the copper/zinc ratio and systemic oxidative stress.
Copper and ceruloplasmin dyshomeostasis in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis subjects (2018)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 3918300875
• An analysis of copper levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of Multiple Sclerosis patients is carried out.
• Ceruloplasmin, a peripheral marker of copper metabolism, is impaired in activity in Multiple Sclerosis subjects.
•A systemic state of high oxidative stress in MS subjects is observed.
Although many studies have been carried out in order to understand the implication of copper (Cu) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the exact role that this metal plays in the disease is not still clear. Because of the lack of information in this subject, the present study compared the serum and cerebrospinal (CSF) levels of copper in MS patients in respect to a control group, matched for age and sex, finding a significant increase of metal concentrations, in both biological fluids of MS subjects. To confirm the possible impairment of Cu metabolism, we analyzed ceruloplasmin (Cp) level and activity, seeing as this protein is an established peripheral marker in diseases associated with Cu imbalance. By comparing these two parameters between control and MS subjects, we found an increase of Cp levels, associated with a decrease in Cp activity, in the second group. By analysing these data, free copper levels were calculated, significantly increased in serum of MS subjects; the increase in free copper could be one of the predisposing factors responsible for the Cu altered levels in CSF of MS patients. At the same time, this alteration could be attributable to the inability to incorporate Cu by Cp, probably due to the high oxidative environment found in serum of MS patients. Overall, all these copper alterations may play a role in MS pathogenesis.
Lower Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Compared to Healthy Controls (2018)
Objective: Diminished blood levels of zinc have been reported to be associated with T-cell-mediated autoimmunity, which has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to compare the distribution of serum zinc status in MS patients with that in healthy controls (HCs) and to investigate a potential correlation with clinical state, through analysis of serum zinc concentration in MS patients suffering from different disease subtypes. Methods: Serum zinc concentrations of 133 patients with relapsing (RMS) and 18 patients with the progressive form of MS (PMS), according to the McDonald criteria of 2010, were measured. Clinical status was quantified using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Zinc concentrations were also determined in the sera of 50 HCs, matched for age and sex at a group level. Results: MS patients showed significantly lower zinc concentrations (mean (SD)) than HCs (12.5 (2.1) µmol/L vs. 14.6 (2.3) µmol/L, p < 0.001). In contrast, we did not find any difference between RMS (12.4 (2.0) µmol/L) and PMS (13.0 (3.0) µmol/L) cases (p = 0.8). Patients receiving disease-modifying treatment showed lower mean (SD) serum zinc levels than untreated cases (12.3 (1.9) µmol/L vs. 13.5 (3.2) µmol/L, p < 0.03). Zinc levels were not related to disease duration, EDSS, annual relapse rate, or the median number of relapses. Conclusions: The data suggest that a diagnosis of MS is related to lower serum zinc concentrations than in HCs, and concentrations were lower still under disease-modifying therapy. However, zinc levels did not predict disease subtypes or disability status.
Dietary habits; concentration of copper, zinc, and Cu-to-Zn ratio in serum and ability status of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (2017)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 071730059X
•Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), due to their antioxidant activity, are important in the setting of multiple sclerosis (MS).
•Decreased Zn concentration in serum and a higher ratio of Cu to Zn may suggest a connection between MS and oxidative stress.
•Various internal and external factors may have an influence on Cu and Zn concentration in serum.
•A higher ratio of Cu to Zn in serum may be associated with inferior ability status.
Dietary habits and adequate intake of antioxidants in the diet—for example, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)—may be an environmental factor in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of dietary habits on the concentration of Cu, Zn in the serum, and the effect of Cu-to-Zn ratio on the ability status of patients with relapsing-remitting MS.
This was an observational case-control study that included 101 individuals with MS and 68 healthy individuals (controls). Food frequency questionnaires were used to collect dietary data. Serum concentrations of Cu and Zn were determined by the electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrometry method, respectively. The ratio of Cu to Zn was calculated and compared with the Expanded Disability Status Scale of patients.
The concentration of Zn was significantly lower in the serum of individuals with MS (0.776 ± 0.195 mg/L) than in the control group (0.992 ± 0.315 mg/L). The ratio of Cu to Zn was higher in the examined patients (1.347 ± 0.806) than in the healthy volunteers (1.012 ± 0.458). Lower ability status (P < 0.05) was revealed in patients with an abnormal ratio of Cu to Zn, particularly, in cerebellar function, pyramidal tracts, and emotional conditions. Selected dietary habits have a significant influence on Cu and Zn concentration in the serum of patients with MS.
Lower serum concentrations of Zn and higher ratio of Cu to Zn in patients with MS can suggest a relationship between MS and oxidative stress. Products that are a source of Zn should be included in the diet, which can improve the clinical condition of people with MS.
pursue optimal self care at least as actively as a diagnosis
ask for referrals to preventive health care specialists eg dietitians
don't let suboptimal self care muddy any underlying diagnostic picture!
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